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Vincent F. Seyfried

Part Seven

The Age of Electrification


A Limited Edition of 750 copies
of which this is 2.)


The "Age of Electrification" might, with no less accuracy, have beentitled the "Age of Transition". Althoughthe time span chronicled hereis abrief oneofonly sixteen years (1901-1916), certainly no compara-
bly briefspanofyears witnessedsuchextensiveandfar-reaching changes touch-
ingevery aspect ofthe railroad's activity. In this briefperiod theLong Island
Rail Road acquired its presentphysical appearance and made the leap froma
summer excursionline to the busy commuter road thatit is today.
It has been necessary to include much material involving the Pennsylvania

Railroad—theEastRiver tunnels, Perm Station, the Sunnyside Yards, theLong
IslandCity powerhouse, etc. Puristsmay object thatthismaterialis not proper-
lypart ofLong Island Rail Road history, yet the average commuter of today
certainly considers the tunnels and Perm Station integral parts of the Long
Islandsystem and wouldregard theirexclusion as altogethertoonarrowapoint
of view.
Iam under lastingobligations tomanypersonsand institutions forhelp dur-

ing the writing ofthis volume: theLong Island Historical Society for the fullest
access to filesof the "Brooklyn Daily Eagle", theLong Island City "Weekly
Star" and theHuntington "Long Islander"; toEvert Volkersz, Head ofSpecial
Collections, Stony Brook University, formaking available tomemany timeta-
bles from theEmoryCollection; toRobert Emoryhimselffor thedispositionsof
the wooden cars and his late father's tower lists; to HaroldGoldsmith for the
labor and effort ofcompiling forme theentire locomotive roster for thisperiod
as wellas the 1898renumbering; toRon Zielfor someof thepictures; toHarold
Fagerberg forphotosofrolling stock and passengercars; to Jeffrey Winslowfor
photos from theHolman Collection; toArthurHuneke forphotos and Xeroxes;
and above all, toFelix Reifschneider fora criticalreading oftheentire manu-
script.Finally, Iowea lasting debtofgratitude to Walter Fuller whoguided this
seventh volumethrough the difficulties and perils ofpublication in these infla-
tion-ridden days.

Garden City
December 1981 Vincent F. Seyfried


I TheLong Island Railroad as a Corporation 1900-1916 1
II TheAtlantic Avenue Improvement 1896-1907 24
111 Terminal Expansion at Long Island City & Jamaica 43

IV Electrification: The Physical Installations 53

V Electrification: The First Services 63

VI Background of the Perm Tunnels 76

VII Digging the Perm Tunnels 89
VIII TheSunnyside Yards 109

IX The Jamaica Grade Elimination 121
X North Side Elevation & Electrification 134
XI Four Improvements: GlendaleCut-off 148

Maple GroveCut-off
Cold Spring Harbor

XII Holban Yards& the Hollis-Queens Elevation 159
XIII The Cedarhurst Cut-off 167
XIV Rails, Roadbed andExtensions 174
XV Passenger Services 1900-1916 184

XVI Marine Operations 1900-1916 210

XVII Fares and Fare Structure 223
XVIII Freight, Baggage & Express 237

XIX Rolling Stock Changes 254

XX Towers, Signals & Interlocks 267

XXI Labor Relations 274
XXII TheLong Island R.R. in the Farm Business 281

Accident List 289
Roster ofNon-electric Passenger Cars 301
Roster ofElectricPassenger Cars 314
Roster ofLocomotives 1900-1917 326
Station Supplement 337

Some Important Dates

May New stationat Auburndale

Dec. 18 Long Island City station destroyedby fire

Feb. 25 Start of thePerm tunnels; first two houses demolished for tun-

Apr. 27 New Long Island City station opens for use after fire
May 27 Six new tracksopened through Jamaica village
May 28 East New York elevated opened to eastbound trains-Snediker

Jun. 13 Workbegun on Weehawken shaft for Perm tunnels
Jun. 25 Workbegun on Manhattan shaft
Jul. 30 EastNewYorkelevated opened towestbound trains-Snediker

Aug. Double track Far Rockaway Branch- Valley Stream to Far

Fall Four-track Rockaway line- Woodhaven Jet. to bay trestle
Nov. 23 AtlanticAye. elevated through Bedford put into use
Dec. 11 Work finished onManhattan shaft ofPerm tunnels

Apr. 18 Workbegun on New York sideofNorth River tunnel
May Start of diggingout Flatbush Avenue site for newstation
May 17 First workbegun on 11th Street shaft forPerm tunnelin Long

Isl. City
Jun. 29 Third track on Rockaway peninsula opened
Sept. 1 Work completed onWeehawken shaft of Perm tunnels
Sept. 1 Workbegun on JerseysideofNorth River tunnel
Sept. 16 Subway section, Howard Aye. to Stone Aye. opened to east-

bound trains
Oct. 1 Subway section, Howard Aye. to Stone Aye. opened towest-

bound trains

Apr. 8 Brooklyn Bridge-Jamaicaservice discontinued
Apr. 25 Four-track section opened-Woodhaven Jet. to Autumn Aye.

on Atlantic Aye.
May 25-Jun. 1 Old Flatbush Avenue station demolished

Jun. Open temporary ticket office shack at Flatbush & Atlantic

July LIRR purchase of Wading River experimental farm site
Jul. 26 Opening of electric service-Flatbush Aye. to Rockaway Park
Jul. 26 First passenger train usesFlatbush-Nostrand Aye. tunnel
Jul. 26 First passenger train uses underground Flatbush Aye. station
Summer Holban Yards laid out
Aug. 29 Electric service opens-Flatbush Avenue to Jamaica
Aug. 29 New stationsat NostrandAye. andWarwickSt. opened to use
Oct. 2 First electric service toBelmont Park Race Track
Nov. 1 First electric service toQueensVillage
Nov. 4 End of steam passenger service intoFlatbush Aye. station
Nov. 4 Bedford station at Franklin Avenue abandoned
Nov. 5 Undergroundstation at Flatbush Aye. opened for regular full

Dec. 1 Electric service extended onpeninsula-Hammels toFar Rock-

Dec. 11 Electric service extended- Jamaica toValley Stream
Jan. Double track opened- Babylon to Oakdale
Spring Site for Medforddemonstration farm purchased
Sept. 12 North River tube bored through & group make tour through

it on foot

Feb. Work begun on layingout theSunnysideYards
Apr. 1 New Flatbush Avenue station opens for use
Apr. Third & Fourth tracksopen- Jamaica to Woodside
Oct. 1 James slip ferry service abandoned
Feb. 21 Tube D (southernmost) ofEast River tunnels holed through
Mar. 5 Tube Cof East River tunnels holed through
Mar. 18 Tube A holed through
May 1 IRT opens service to LIRR station at Flatbush & Atlantic

May 26 Electric service extended through toHempstead
May 30 LIRR service extended over Williamsburgh Bridge toDelan-

cey Street
Sept. 12 LIRR trains begin running on newembankment through Sun-

nyside Yards
Sept.-Nov. Pennsylvania R.R. tests electrical equipment on Central


Aug. 22 Work begun on the Glendale Cut-off
Sept. 30 Annex ferry toWall Street abandoned

March Work begun on Maple Grove realignment & four-tracking

Main Line
Mar. 1 GlendaleCut-offcompleted
May 12 Double track between Roslyn and Glen Cove opened
Sept. 4 New Main Line thru Forest Hills & Maple Grove (Kew

Gdns.) opens
Sept. 21 First test trainruns fromL.I. City to Perm Sta. thruEast Riv-

er tubes
Oct. Long Beach gets first year-round service
Oct. 30 New Hicksvillestation opens

Apr. 13 Electric loco. & 6 cars make trial run fromL.I. City to Perm

Jun. 16 Electric service extended: L.I. City to Far Rock, via Main

Line & cutoff
Jun. 16 First trains over the Glendale Cut-off
July New station at Malba added to timetables
Jun. 23 Electric service opens: Woodside-Jamaica & Woodhaven Jet.
Jul. 26 Work begun on Jamaica station elevation
Aug. HaroldTower activated
Sept. 8 Electric service extended to Long Beach
Sept. 8 LIRR trains begin service to & fromPerm Station
Nov. Bridge for westbound tracks over Van Wyck Blvd. Jamaica

Nov. 27 Pennsylvania R.R. trains useNorth River tubes for first time

Mar. Plandome station becomes a regular stop on timetables
Mar.17 Double track between Hicksville and Syosset opens
Apr. 1 LIRR begins operation of its first battery car on Bushwick

May 14 Double track between Broadway and Great Neck opened
June Nassau station changes name to Glen Cove
Aug. New station at Forest Hillsadded to timetables

Spring Double track between Glen Cove & Locust Valley opens
July New Bay Shore station building opens

Sept. 10 Trainsbegin usingnew depressedright ofway through Flush-

Oct. 22 Electric service extended: Woodside toWhitestone Landing
Oct. 15 OldMurray Hill station demolished
Nov. 11 OldFlushing-Main Street station demolished
Dec. Old single-track tunnel east ofMain St. Flushing demolished

Feb. Norwood station changes name to Malverne
Mar. 9 New Jamaica Station opened; old station & Beaver St. station

Spring LIRR begins battery car operation on West Hempstead

July 1 All five platforms ofnew Jamaica Stationopened to use
Aug. 4 LIRR service extended fromDelancey St. toChambers St. on

Oct. 21 Electric service extended on North Shore Br. to Port Wash-


May 27 Double track at ColdSpringHarbor opened from Syosset
June OldSouth Ferry stationof 1836 demolished
Jul. 1 Hunter's Point Avenue station opened
Dec. 17 Useof wooden center doorcars ends in local service

Summer Shuttle trolleybegins service at ClintonRoad station, Garden

Oct. 6 Westbound track at Woodside opened to traffic on Winfield

Nov. 1-6 OldWoodside station demolished
Nov. 9 All traffic uses new route through Woodside on Winfield


Sept. 2 Adamson Eight-hour Law passed by Congress

Jun. 12-15 Federal Government announces that camp site will be estab-

lished on Long Island
Jul. 7 First train runs into Camp Upton
August Camp Mills in Garden City established
Dec. 26 Federal Government takes over therailroads ofthecountry

Jun. 7 Double track openedbetween Hicksville and Central Park
Aug.30 Double track opened between Central Park and Farmingdale

The Long Island R.R. as a Corporation

OFall the changes that have affected the Long Island R.R. inits 150 yearhistory, few have been as profound and as far-reaching as the purchaseof the road by the PennsylvaniaRail-
road. By 1900 the Pennsylvaniahad already amply made goodits boast
ofbeing the standard railroad of the world, and its enormous wealth,
executive talentand geographical extent assured it of certain success in
any project it wished to undertake.Asbefits so largea corporate giant,
the Pennsylvania in all its decisions moved with calculation, delibera-
tion anda carefulassessment of the risks. InNewYork, thegreatest city
and largestmarket in the East, the Pennsylvania in 1900enjoyed no spe-
cial advantage. Like its half dozencompetitors it had a waterside termi-
nal on the Jersey side ofthe Hudsonand thatwas all. Its chiefrival, the
New York Central, alone could boast of a terminal on Manhattan
Island. The Pennsylvania, well aware of this disadvantage, had been
considering an improvementin its position in the New York area since
1890 and had laid its plans accordingly.
The first step in this calculatedcampaign was the acquisition of the

Long Island R.R. Although the Long Island in 1900 was primarily a
rural rail linewith a mostly seasonal traffic and its earningswere negli-
giblealongside thoseof the Pennsylvania, yet its potentials were great if
it were to become the property of a bigger road. TheLong Island had
two deep-water terminalsin the New YorkHarbor at Long Island City
and Bay Ridge; it hada network of tracks inBrooklyn at that time the
fourth largest city in the United States after New York, Chicagoand
Philadelphia and which originatedan immense commercial traffic; the
Long Islandcontrolled access to an immense resort area stretching from
Coney Island andManhattan Beach toLong Beach and the Hamptons.
Perhaps the most attractive feature of the Long Island R.R. was that, if
it could be physically linked upwith the PennsylvaniaRail Road by a
bridge or tunnel, it could open up an immense new traffic opportunity
and might even serve as a gateway to the New England market. What
the Long Island R.R. had always lacked was capital to develop itself

and to realize its potentials; the Pennsylvania was in position to supply
thislack in abundance. The Brooklyn Bridgehad proved that the East
River could be bridged; the halfcompleted Hudson Tunnelhad proved
the Hudson River could be tunneled as well. Why not repeat one or
both attempts for the aggrandizement of the Pennsylvania Railroad?

With its thinking runningalong theselines, the Pennsylvania began
acquiring slowly all the loose shares of Long Island R.R. stock that
came onto the market. Majority control of the Long Island R.R. was in
the hands of the Pratt syndicate, composed of August Belmont, the
banker and president of the InterboroughRapid Transit Co., Theodore
A. Havemeyer, vice-president of the American Sugar Refining Co.;
GeorgeW. Young,president of theUnited StatesMortgage & TrustCo.
and Charles M. Pratt himself, president of the Pratt Refining Co., for-
merly vice-president under the Corbin regime and owner in his own
right ofa quarter ofLong Island R.R. stock.
During late 1899 and early 1900 the Pennsylvania RailRoad negoti-

ated with the Pratt syndicate for purchaseof their controlling majority
of thesecurities. Thesyndicate was in nohurry to selland when it did,
it reaped a handsome profit. The Pennsylvania had to buy at 97 or
$48.50 a share. By its purchase the Pennsylvania Railroad acquired
6,030,000 of the twelve million sharesofcapital stock outstanding.The
news of the sale wasconfirmed to the newspapers on May 5, 1900. In
JunePresidentBaldwin of theLong Island R.R. went to Philadelphia to
conferwith President Cassatt of the Pennsylvania Railroad and within
twoweeks the board ofdirectors held a newmeeting to seat four Penn-
sylvania appointees, among them Samuel Rea, its 4th vice president.
Surprisingly, the Pennsylvania did not absorb the Long Island and con-
vert it into a component of the biggerroad soas to blot out its separate
identity;rather, the Pennsylvania contented itself with majority control
of the board and the finances of the road, but left the operating officials
and the day-to-day running of the road untouched. WilliamH. Baldwin
was left as president and William F. Potter as general superintendent
while Charles M. Pratt and a numberof other local directors retained
theirseats as directors.

The officers of the road for the next dozen yearswere as follows:

President: William Henry Baldwin 1900-1905;William
Frederick Potter 1905
Ralph Peters, pres. &gen. mgr. tohis death
on Oct. 9, 1923 at 70

Vice-president: David C. Green 1905-1906; Henry Tatnall

Secretary: Frank Haff 1901-
Treasurer: R. W. Smith 1901-1903; Henry Tatnall

1905-1907; James F. Fahnestock 1908—
Ass't Treasurer: JohnM. Wood 1901-
Comptroller: R. W. Downing 1901-1904; M. Riebenach

1905-1910; C. M. Buntine 1911-
Auditor: Albert B. Bierck 1901—
General Superintendent: JamesA. McCrea 1907-

The Pennsylvania Railroad owners toured the Long Island R.R. in
June 1900 noting the physical conditionof the road and whathad to be
done to bring the road up to Pennsylvania standards. It was felt that
track and roadbed and rolling stock had come a long way under the
Pratt managementbut that therewas still a long way to go. The Penn-
sylvania officialspromised muchupgrading and faster trains; best ofall,
theybacked in fullPresident Baldwin'sambitious programpresented to
the Long Island directors at their June 1899 meeting:

1. Completion of the Atlantic Avenue Improvement to eliminate all
gradecrossings inside the Borough ofBrooklyn

2. Electrification of the western end of the road
3. Constant eliminationof grade crossings everywhere on the Island
4. Building of feeder trolley lines at Rockaway, Huntington,

Northport, Sea Cliffand Glen Cove
5. Upgrading of Jamaicastation and the Long Island City terminal

At the timeof the Pennsylvania take-over, someof thisprogram was far
advanced in respect to planning and legislation (Atlantic Avenue
Improvement); other parts had beenaccomplished such as thepurchase
and electrificationof the feeder trolleys at Rockaway andHuntington.
By wisely retaining the same managementteam, the Pennsylvania Rail-
road insured continuity ofplanning and supervision, while at the same
timegiving these men greater resources to work with.
A few small changes were introduced immediately by the Penn-

sylvania. Some of the offices were transferred to New York fromLong
Island City; the public noticed that the highway crossing gates, the sig-
nal posts, mile posts, etc. were now paintedblack andwhite insteadof
dark red. Car signsbegan for the first time tobe placedat the forward
end of each passenger coach announcing the destination. These were

black on red background. Other than theseminor changes the Penn-
sylvania attempted no furtherchanges foreleven years. Not till March
1911 did the Pennsylvania impose any additional visible signs of its
ownership. Then an order went out thatall the employees of the Long
Island would wear uniforms conforming in color and style to those
worn by trainmen of the Pennsylvania. The new uniforms were to be
blue ofabout the same shadeas thencurrently worn, but instead of the
decorations being in goldbraid, silver wouldbe substituted. Aslight dif-
ference in the cut of the new garments was also introduced. Summer
uniformswould consistofblue cloth coat andwhitecaps and vest,with
"Pennsylvania Railroad" buttons and lettering on the coat. The regula-
tions called forconductors to wear frock coats and the brakemen sack
coats with different ornaments. When cars were to be painted hence-
forth, the dark maroonof the Pennsylvania would beused, but thename
"Long Island" would continue to be lettered on the cars. The Penn-
sylvania was cautious to stop short ofanything that would invalidate
the charter of the Long Island since that charter had now come tobe
one of the most valuable instruments in the state,being perpetual and
giving the Long Island nearly unlimited powers.

During these first years of the 20th century, the chiefoperating offi-
cials wereas follows:

William F. Potter: general superintendent 1901-1903; general
manager and vice president in 1904; member
board of directors president Jan. 1905

Charles L. Addison: first came on the road as an electricalengineer;
then became supt. of transportation;advanced
to roadmaster; then in 1904 became general
superintendent. Assistant to president

F. Hartenstein: originally conductor on the Pere Marquette in
Michigan; brought by Potter to LIRR and
made freight trainmaster; in 1904 made super-
intendent of transportation; superintendent

WilliamLewis Jarvis: entered LIRR service 1875; passenger train-
master Sept. 1891; trainmaster 1904-1913;
directed troop movements during WWI
1917-1918; assistant trainmaster when retired
in 1925.

W. E. Canning: began on LIRR as messenger boy andworked
his way up; in 1904 assistant trainmaster, in
chargeof freight.

James McCrae Jr.: became general superintendent in January
1906. Son of the president of the Pennsylvania
Rail Road; had formerly been superintendent
of the PRR west ofPittsburgh and in Cincin-
nati; general manager until 1918.

The Long Island R.R. in the course of theone year 1905experienced
threechanges ofpresidents and the loss of two of its best men. In the
springof 1904 PresidentWilliam H. Baldwinbecame seriously sick and
was taken to the German Hospital on 77th St. N.Y. He underwent an
exploratory operationin June and a second in July revealed that he had
a cancerous growthon the intestines. In September 1904 the patient was
movedby special train from the hospital to his estate "Standish Farm"
in Locust Valley. X-Ray machinery, thenvery new in this country, was
set up in hishome to treat him. In the succeeding months, despite this
treatmentand fresh air sorties in his wheelchair, Baldwin slowly sank.
Ironically, as his condition grew worse, the bulletinsissuedby the doc-
tors grew increasingly optimistic. As late as a week before his death,
Christmasgreetings full ofhope were sent to allLIRR officials and the
family characterized all alarming reports as exaggerations. The presi-
dent died on the morningof Jan. 3, 1905, a month short ofhis 42nd
birthday. The news of his death created a profound sensation on the
LIRR and occasioned lengthy obituaries in the newspapers. It was
revealed that he held directorships in 26 businesscorporations and life
insurance companies. One of his main charitable preoccupations was
the higher education ofblacks; he was a large contributor to the Tus-
kegee Institute in Alabama and a co-workerwith Booker T. Washing-
ton. After a private funeralservice a special train, including hisprivate
car #2000, conveyed the body to Boston and Forest Hills Cemetery,
where, after a Unitarian service was said, the body was cremated. On
Jan. 11, 1905 duringa memorial service at whichBooker T. Washing-
ton spoke, all trains on the Long Island R.R. and all ferryboats of the
company stopped wherever they happened to be from 4 P.M. to 4:02
P.M. out ofrespect for the latepresident. This was arare honor, dupli-
cated only once before in September 1901 during the funeral ofPresi-

Baldwin left behind a widow, a son and daughter. In his memory
Presidents Roosevelt and Cleveland organized a memorial association
to raise an endowment fund for the Tuskegee Institute and Andrew
Carnegie led off the subscription list with $12,500. By Jan. 1, 1906,
$150,000 was turned over to Baldwin's favorite charity, the funds hav-
ing come fromover 600 individuals. Baldwin'sestate was settled in June
1907 with the estate inventoriedat $275,509.
On January 13, 1905 the board of directors of the Long Island R.R.

metand unanimouslyelected William F. Potter, vice presidentand gen-
eralmanager, to the presidency. Potter was at this time 49 years old and
had been brought to the Long Island R.R. by Baldwin from the Pere
Marquette where he had been general superintendent. He hadbecome
general superintendent of the Long Island R.R. on Jan. 1, 1897 and in
1904 vice president and general manager. Potter's specialty was labor
relations; he knew large numbers of the operatingpersonnel of the road
by name, and in disciplining, always gave full hearings and took into
account all extenuatingcircumstances. He knew the physical conditions
on the road better thanany manand had gone over every part of it in
times of flood and storm as well asunder ordinaryconditions.
Potter had scarcely entered upon his duties as president when he

became ill on returning from Philadelphia on Mar. 3. He developed a
high fever at first, but when he became helpless and unconscious the
nextmorningand remained so, doctors weresummonedand diagnosed
cerebro-spinal meningitis. Sosudden had the attack been that he was
forced to remain at a New York hotel rather than journeyhome to
Flushing; here he remained unconscious six days, during which time
Samuel Rea, fourth vice-president of the Pennsylvania, carried on his
duties. On Apr. 2, 1905 President Potter passedaway andhisbody was
conveyed to hishome at 112 Sanford Aye. Flushing. The seconddeath
of aLong Island R.R. president in threemonthsprofoundly affected the
road and drew many emotional expressions of loyalty and grief from
engine men, conductors, brakemen and many humble employees who
deeply respected their chief. The funeral was conspicuous for the large
floral tributes sentby trainmen ofevery rank numbering over 1000 indi-
vidual pieces. At the home the Episcopal servicewasread and in the late
afternoon the body was cremated at FreshPond. On the followingday,
a specialNew York Central train bore the ashes and thefamily to Sagi-
naw, Michigan, the old home of the deceased. Some measure of the
enormous personal popularity of Potter was shown in October 1905
when a committee of 14 heads of departmentcalled on Mrs. Potter in

her Flushing homeand presentedherwith a largeand life-like oil paint-
ing of her latehusband to which 8000 employees of the road had con-

After a meeting of the directors of the road held on Apr. 5, 1905,
Ralph Peters was elected presidentof the Long Island R.R. Mr.Peters,
then 51 yearsold, was a resident ofOhioand since 1901 hadbeen gener-
al superintendent ofthe southwest system of the PennsylvaniaRailroad
west of Pittsburgh and the subsidiaries around Cincinnati. He had
entered the railroadbusiness in 1874and had been promoted from one
railroad toanother and hadaccumulated a broad experience. The posi-
tion of president of the Long Island R.R. was regarded as one of the
most challenging in the field and a measureof the highregard in which
the Pennsylvania Railroad held him. His personality was described as
very striking and as a genial and agreeable official. At Peter's election
President Cassatt ofthe Pennsylvania Railroad and Samuel Rea, fourth
vice presidentand in charge of the Perm Station, the Perm tunnels and
the New YorkConnecting Rail Road were also elected directors of the
Long Island RailRoad. Mr. Peters, in contrast toWilliam Potter's taste
for simplicity, espoused the grand style as befittinghis exalted rank by
moving into a large new house in Garden Cityand buying a summer
home in noless exclusiveBelle Terreon the Sound. Mr. Peters, also in
contrast to his predecessor, was destined to remain as headof the Long
Island Rail Road down to his 70th birthday in 1923, the age of
mandatory retirement on the Pennsylvania system.

Financing of the Long Island Rail Road corporation during the first
decade of this century changed relatively little. InNovember 1903at a
special meeting of the stockholders of the road the board of directors
was authorized to change one provision in the $45,000,000 unified 50
year 4% bonds issued Mar. 1, 1899. This was to strike out the restric-
tion allowing the sale of $400,000 per year inany one year for improve-
ments and instead put no limit on the amount thatcould be expendedat
one time. Thischange was designed togive the railroad $ 15,000,000at
once, or as soon asneeded, for the extensive improvementsnecessitated
by the Perm tunnels; also the Bay Ridge yards, Holban yards,Flatbush
Avenue station and association with the New York Connecting Rail
Road, new rolling stock and electrification.
In January 1904 the road applied for andreceived the approbationof

theState Board ofRailroad Commissioners for thischange. TheEquita-
ble TrustCompany ofNew Yorkwas the holderof thishugemortgage,
at thattime the largest ever filed in Queens County, andhad its manon

the Long Island's board of directors— vice president James Hazen
Hyde. InMarch 1905KuhnLoeb &Co. bought $6,000,000 of these4%
bonds guaranteed by the Pennsylvania Railroad. The money was to be
used forimmediate improvementsandraised to $17,000,000 the amount
issued so far underprovisions of the $45,000,000 mortgage.

The palmy days of expansion continued on the Long Island Rail
Road until the Panic of 1907. In the third weekof October, a panic on
theNew York Stock Exchange spread consternation through the New
Yorkmoney markets. The failureof theKnickerbocker Trust Co., sec-
ond largestin the country, triggered the panic andall stocks and securi-
ties took a tumble. The crisis was compounded in October and Nov-
ember when alarmed citizens withdrew millions in savings from the
local banks.

The full effect of thison the railroad began to be felt in Januaryand
February 1908; suddenly, retrenchment became the order of the day.
The road laid off 20 of its civil engineers, surveyors and draughtsmen
employed in the offices of the chiefengineer, since no further improve-
ments could be financed during 1908. Moreserious was the postpone-
ment of double-tracking fromFlushing toGreat Neck and Roslyn to
GlenCove, electrification to Mineola, Great Neck and Long Beach and
the postponement ofbuilding the cross-island trolley line. For the first
timein its history, the Long Island sent its own coal cars to the Penn-
sylvania coal fieldsand 150 gondolas were on theirway to the mines for
the company's own supply of fuel.
The railroad next felt the pinch of a money shortage. At least eight

million was needed to complete the four-tracking of the Main Line
betweenSunnyside Yard and Jamaicaand terminal changesat Jamaica;
also the doubletracking of the North Shore Div. and the electrification
in Queens andNassau. Therailroadhad by this time issuedall it could
ofits $45,000,000 mortgagebonds, the remainder being heldby trustees
for the redemptionofbondspreviously issued and to fall due in the next
few years. Unhappily, the railroad in 1907-08 was running at a loss
because of wage increases, use ofhard coal, an over-liberal timetable
and the purchase of two newferryboats. Thehigh operating costs were
the real reason behind the severe retrenchment— a necessity to make
the road livewithin its income. By watching every penny the road was
able to effect some substantialreductions:

Thecompanysince 1903had spent $28,000,000 onpermanent improve-
mentsand thishuge investment could onlybe recouped over a longperi-
od of years.
In September 1909 the railroad again applied to the Public Service

Commission for authorization of an issue of 10-year debenture bonds
amounting to $16,500,000 to be used for completing the electrification
of the Main Line, some essential double-tracking, and finally, the elec-
trification of the North Shore Division. Thismoney, alongwith a rapid
recovery of the country generally, enabled the railroad toget back into
the black.
TheLong Island Rail Road's close financial relationship with the

PennsylvaniaRailroadcameunderattack in March 1915 whena minor-
itygroupof stockholdersholding about 30%of the stockand represent-
ed by Dick Bros., Wall Street brokers, sued to recover Long Island
fundsallegedly misappropriated and to cancel contracts allegedly made
for the benefit of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Dick Bros, charged that
Long Island Rail Road moneys had been misappropriated, that the
Pennsylvania putnine of its own men into the Board ofDirectors out of
the 13 composing the full board,and that$7,000,000 hadbeen expend-
ed on the East New Yorkand Bay Ridge Improvements for the benefit
of the New York Connecting Railroad, owned jointly by the Penn-
sylvania and the New Haven, and that the railroad was taxed for the
Perm Station.

The contest between the Pennsylvania who owned 56% of the stock
and the minoritywithabout 30% causeda scramble to buyup the float-
ing supply of shares on the open marketand the price ofLong Island
Rail Road stock shot up 14 points (35 to 49). The suit reached the
Supreme Court in January 1916. The Pennsylvania claimed it had
advanced the Long Island RailRoad fifty million for improvementsbut
the minority claimed that 27 million had been spent unnecessarily and
more to the advantage of the Pennsylvania than to the Long Island.
Also attacked was the $600,000annual rental paid by the Long Island
Rail Road for the use of the Perm tunnels and station.

Although the suit eventually failed, it did impel the Public Service
Commission to make an elaborate study of the finances and physical

>perating expenses
naintenance of equipment



improvementsof the Long Island Rail Road and its relationswith the
Pennsylvania Railroadback to 1907. The PSC directed the Long Island
Rail Road to issue $13,000,000 of its 4% ten-year golddebenturebonds
for the purpose of repaying the Pennsylvania Railroad for advances
made for improvements since 1909. Either the proceeds of the deben-
tures sold at par or the debentures themselvescould be turnedover to
the PennsylvaniaRailroad in liquidation of the advances.

The year 1910was a specialone for the Long Island Rail Road; April
marked the75thanniversary of the road. To mark the diamond jubilee,
President Peters gathered the members of theboard of directors and the
staff officers at Long Island City. At 9:45 A.M. a special train pulled
out, first going to Bay Ridge to pick upa car thathadcome fromPhila-
delphia with someof the Pennsylvania directors and officials andwhich
had been floated over from Jersey City. The train with 38 aboard then
went toEast New York, the Rockaways, Long Beach and then Garden
City where President Peters served luncheon to the party in his own
home. In the lateafternoon the special train returned to Long Island
City. Unique invitationshad been sent for the excursion; the card dis-
played two seals, one showing the primitive train of 1836 and the other
the entrance to the Perm Tunnels with an electric locomotive. Between
the seals was a photo of one of the new locomotives of the company.
It was a fitting if quiet celebration for the Long Island Rail Roadwas

not only one of the oldestroads in the country but one of the very few
railroad corporations, if not the only one in the country, which had
operatedcontinuously under its original charterand name. Two perma-
nent mementoeseventually appeared as lastingtributes to the anniver-
sary. The first was a 24-page programbooklet with historical statistics,
facsimiles of old timetables and a folding diagram of the corporate set-
up. The other was a complete set ofportraits ofall 19 presidents since
1836. SecretaryFrank Haffundertook tocollect these likenesses and the
effort involved acorrespondence ofmore than a thousand letters direct-
ed to addresses in all parts of the United States. The portraits were
enlarged from collodionprints, bromide and gelatine prints, daguerreo-
types, crayon portraitsand tintypes. The excellent results of thismonu-
mental effort werepresented to the first meetingof the board in January
1911. Later, the 19pictureswere hung in the company's offices at Perm

The corporate structure of the Long Island Rail Road which had
grown complicated in the 80's and 90's becauseof the legal penchant for
incorporating every extension, was somewhatsimplifiedand brought up

to date in the first decade of the century. On Aug. 29, 1902, the New
York Bay Extension Railroad and the Great Neck and Port Washing-
ton Railroad were merged into the Long Island Rail Road.

On Dec. 22, 1902 the road incorporated with the State the Jamaica
and South ShoreRailroad. Thiswasdone inpreparation for the foreclo-
sure on May 27, 1903 of the NewYork & Rockaway Railroad, the old
railroad from Hillsideto Springfield and across the meadows to Cedar-
hurst. After the foreclosure, property and assets of the old road were
turned over to the newly organized Jamaica and South Shore on Dec.
19, 1903. Finally, the Jamaicaand South Shore was itselfmerged into
the parent Long Island Rail Road on Dec. 5, 1912.
One of the most curious corporate maneuvers was effected in June

1903 for the benefit of the Pennsylvania-sponsored New York Connect-
ing Railroad. One track of the Montauk Branch fromGlendale station
at 73rdPlace to FreshPond Road was sold to the New York Connect-
ing Railroad to make it legally eligible fora franchisefrom the Board of
Rapid Transit Commissioners.In order to continueoperating the track,
the Long Island Rail Road leased the trackback on May 31, 1904.
On July 1, 1904 therailroad renewed its leaseof "The Long Island

Railroad—North Shore Branch", the stretch from Port Jefferson to
WadingRiver. This 11-mileroad was eventually merged into the parent
road on June23, 1921. In July 1904 the Long IslandRail Road renewed
for 50 years the lease of the New York & Rockaway Beach Railroad,
operating from Glendale Junction to Rockaway Beach. This too was
eventually merged into the parent road on July 1, 1922. On June 28,
1907 the New York &Long Beach Railroad wasmerged into the Long
Island Rail Road and the Oyster Bay Extension Railroad followed a
similar path into oblivion on April 24, 1913.

The Perm Tunnels occasioned the conclusion of some important
operating agreements between the Long Island Rail Road on the one
hand and its owner, the Pennsylvania Railroadon the other. Thesecov-
ered trackagerights for the Long Island to run trains into Perm Station
andagreements toshare the expensesofmaintenance.On Sept. 14, 1910
an agreement covering trackage rights was signed and on June 24, 1912
a newagreement requiring the Long Island to pay arental of $13,000 a
month and "a ratable proportion of the expense of maintenance of
trackageand facilities."

Beside the readjustment ofrelationswith its own railroad subsidiar-
ies, the Long IslandRail Road similarly overhauled its relationship with
its five trolley subsidiaries, and in so doing, became involved with the

InterboroughRapid Transit. In March 1905 the Long Island Consoli-
dated Electrical Companies was incorporatedwith a nominal capital of
$25,000 andwas authorized to "build, operate or furnish power forrail-
roads and to buy and hold the stocks of electrical or railway corpora-
tions." Several officials of the Pennsylvania Railroad were named as
directors and financial circles correctly surmised that the company's
main purpose was to serve as a holding company for Long Island Rail
Road traction interests.

Immediately after, on June 20, 1905, the Long Island Rail Road
bought out, togetherwith the InterboroughRapid Transit,ownershipof
the New York & Long Island Traction Company, a trolley line that
closelyparalleled theLong Island Rail Road routes in Queens andNas-
sau Counties. In the last week of November 1905 both companies
bought out the Long Island Electric Railway, another trolley road in
Central Queens witha branch to Far Rockaway. TheLong Island and
the Interborough each took a half interest in the two lines acquired.
August Belmont, president of the Interborough Rapid Transit and a
director of the Long Island Rail Road as well, was the main force
behindboth purchases. Since Belmont and the IRT hadalready bought
out in 1903 the largest trolley networkofall, the New York & Queens
County Railway, he now shared with the Long Island Rail Road a
monopoly ofall competing rail transportation in Queens and Nassau

On Jan. 11, 1906 the news about the Long Island ConsolidatedElec-
tricalCompanies was made public. Some timein 1905 the Long Island
Rail Road conveyed to the Consolidated Electrical Companies the
entire capital stock of its five trolley subsidiaries, namely, the Ocean
Electric Railway, the Huntington Railroad, the Northport Traction
Company, theNassau CountyRailway, the GlenCoveRailroadand the
non-operated and non-trolley railroad line, the Jamaica and South
Shore Railroad Co. (the Cedarhurst Cut-off) The ConsolidatedElectri-
calCompanies thus fulfilled its intended functionas aholding company
and was neveragain active in any way as a corporation.

The Long Island Rail Road, likealmost every other railroad in the
country, maintained somewhat of areluctant relationship with the Fed-
eral government because of the contract to carry the mails. President
AustinCorbin had complainedof inadequatecompensation forcarrying
the mails in the 1890's but President Baldwin in 1901 took the highly
unusual step ofbringing an action for relief before the State Board of
Railroad Commissioners.Section 56 of the Railroad Lawprovided that

a fairand remunerative return shouldbe allowed inNew York State for
carrying the mails, and if a road felt aggrieved in the matter, it might
complain to the State Railroad Commission to fix a new rate. Howev-
er—and thismade the action interesting— the railroad couldnot legal-
ly refuse to carry the mails and the Federal government was free to
refuse topay the rate fixedby theState Commission. PresidentBaldwin
in hisactionmaintained that theLong Island RailRoad was gettingnot
much more than a quarter ofwhat it justlydeserved. The matter was a
complicated one because the rate of compensation varied with the 25
different mail routes on the road and the rate took into consideration
varying factors likeweight, mileage, car space and others.

The Post Office, for its part, claimed that it was paying the highest
rate allowedby lawand thatno otherroad wasreceiving more. The rate
ofcompensation had first been fixed in 1873 and amended in 1878; in
1900, a jointcommitteeofthe Senate andHouseafter two yearsspent in
investigating the question, reported back that thereseemed noreason to
alter the prevailing rates paid. The rate was adjusted every four years
and was determined by weighing the amount ofmail carried for30 days
and then strikinga yearly average. President Baldwin complained that
the weighing of the mailson the Long Island hadbeen donein the early
spring when the traffic was light. Tobe perfectly just, the Post Office
then weighed the mails over a period of six months from Feb. 20 to
Aug. 20 so as toinclude the heavy summer travel. On thisbasis thePost
Office made a new contract with the Long Island RailRoad for another
four years. No railroadhad ever before refused to carry the mails and if
PresidentBaldwinwere torefuse, therewas nocompeting carrieron the
island towhom the mails could be entrusted.
In December 1901 President Baldwin withdrew his threat to stop

carrying the mails but said that he would continue agitation in Wash-
ington to get the method of computation changed. As he saw it, the
fault lay in that the government fixed the rate on theaverage weightper
mileand not on the amount ofcar space occupied and train serviceren-
dered. The Long Island tended to have a relatively light weightofmail
handled percar and shortruns as opposed to theaverage mail car oper-
ated in the UnitedStates, yetit cost just as much tohaul a light car as a
heavy one. Heconcludedwith an estimate that the Long Islandwas get-
ting for mail only one third what express matter, baggage or freight
would bring.

Eight years later in 1909PresidentPeters wentbefore a committee of
the House of Representatives to ask for additional compensation for

carrying the mails on Long Island. He again estimated that the mails
earnedonly abouta thirdofwhat similar space devoted to express and
freightwould bring in. Thecompany in 1909was receiving only $3000
more for carrying themails than it hadreceived in 1894. The company
had streamlined the service from 25 mail routes to 13 and the actual
cost of thisserviceprovided by the railroadwas $122,169.90. Asa result
of the hearing, a bill was introduced in Congress toremedy the inequity
and President Peters had the satisfactionof seeing it passed.

The question of just compensation arose once again in December
1912 when a committeerepresenting 268 railroad companies from all
over the country made a report to Congress. It concluded, as did Presi-
dent Peters in 1909, that railway mail pay did not equal operating
expensesand that the situationwasabout toget worsebeginning Janua-
ry 1, 1913, when the parcel post system went into effect. The govern-
ment and the postmaster general considered only operating expenses
and taxes in computing the rates, but made no allowance for the value
of the railway property employed: new steel cars that had to be substi-
tuted, expensivelybuilt, well-lightedand heated; stationservices includ-
ing driveways, tracks and other conveniences; expense of transfer at
intermediate points, delivery to post offices; freecarrying ofmail clerks
and postal inspectors. The average yearly compensation to the Long
Island Rail Road forcarrying the mails hadbeen for 14 yearspast only
about $38,000 a year; the average mail earnings per car mile was only
13.4® whereas the freight earnings were 26.5c, meaning that the road
wasbeing compelled tohaul in expensive passenger car trainshigh class
mail matter at half the rate received for average class freight in slow
moving trains.
In March 1915, President Peters, asnational chairman of the Rail-

way Mail Pay Committee, in a railroad publication charged that the
postmaster general was permitting the Federal government to rob the
railroads ofat least half what was due them forcarrying parcel post.
The postmaster general, in an angry response, stated that the railroads,
since Jan. 1, 1913when the parcel post system had started, hadreceived
nearly $4,500,000 in extracompensation in addition to their regular pay
and that he had recommended to Congress legislation which would
allow still another $1,000,000 in pay. This was based on the actual
weightof the parcels carried. Because thisproblem was a national one,
no solution fully satisfactory to the railroads was forthcoming from
Washington and the carrying of the mails remained a sore point on the
Long Island Rail Road.

One interesting aspect of the feverish railroad activity of the early
years of this century, and one little known and largelyforgotten today,
is the intensive real estate speculation carriedon by the Pennsylvania,
and to a lesser extent,by the Long Island Rail Road. The necessity to
buy extensive tracts of landarose in 1902 when the Perm Tunnels were
started and continued during the developmentof the Sunnyside Yards
and the widening of the main line to and through Jamaica. The rail-
roads used individual agents at times but sometimes worked through
real estate companies. These, in turn, transferred their purchases to the
company's own real estate subsidiary, the Stuyvesant Real Estate Com-
pany. As a subsidiary, Stuyvesant held title to land bought for railroad
use only, whether for the Pennsylvania or the New York Connecting
and ownership was vested in the Pennsylvania Railroad corporation.
However, someof the directors and officers of the Pennsylvania Rail-
road, all wealthy men in theirown right, wished to make a profit from
the saleof suburban land newly benefited either by the coming of the
railroad orby the electrification of olderexisting lines. Queens County
in 1900 was a completelyrural area beyond Long Island City and onlya
few villages of consequence, notably Flushing and Jamaica,interrupted
the miles of farmland. These wealthy men enjoyed the advantage of
knowing in advance precisely whatareas were going tobe benefited and
having the capital to buy up tracts and develop them profitably. This
was not a new thing in Long Island real estate. Governors Roswell P.
Flower (1892-1894) and Frank S. Black (1897-1898) had bought up
sizeable tracts of Queens land for speculative purposes, using dummy
agents as the nominal purchasersof the farms.
In 1903 chiefLong Island Rail Road counsel, William J. Kelly, at

the bidding of thedirectors, incorporated theMatawok Land Company
and hired the Manhattanreal estate firm ofSmith&Steward to manage
the company. The country thatmost attracted the Matawok Company
was the Forest Hillsarea and the hill country above Jamaica as fareast
as Floral Park. The first purchase embraced 600 acres north ofHillside
Avenue, developed later as Jamaica Estates. The extensive railroad
improvementsof thisperiodwere too widespread and too public to hide
and of course the Matawok Company was not the only one to sense a
profit to be made. Wealthy people like William K. Vanderbilt, Mrs.
Mackey and lesser-known millionaires all triggered a land boom that
raised the humblest farm acreage to grosslyinflated figures. Pricesrose
1000%particularly in the formerTownsofNewtown and Flushing and
toa lesser figure farthereast. Parcels of an acre or better, particularly if

well situated, brought unprecedented prices and changedhands freely.
New streets were opened particularly near the established villages and
the urban sprawl so familiar to post-World War II Americabegan in
Elmhurst, Corona, Jamaica, Ingleside, Richmond Hill and Woodside
In July 1905, thirteen conveyances were registered in the Queens

County clerk's office in the name of the Matawok Co. covering 233
acres in the Forest Hills section. The parcels consisted of 17 farms
bought through dummies at from $2000 to $3000 peracre, making a
total cost some $600,000. These fronted on Queens Blvd., Woodhaven
Blvd. and Yellowstone Blvd. The Matawok Company already had
acquired other farms totalling 500 acres in this area and 500 to 600
acresworth $1,500,000 in ablocknorth of Jamaicavillage. In the Forest
Hills section the Matawok Company cooperated with Cord Meyer, a
Maspeth man who had amassed a fortune in fertilizers and who had
invested heavily in what came to be known as Forest Hills. The Cord
Meyer Development Co., along with Mrs. Russell Sage, widow of the
railroad financier, became the founders of today's Forest Hills. (Rail-
road station built May 1911).

By 1907 the Metawok Company seems to declineas apotent factor
in Queens real estate, very possibly because the farm acreage that was
availableat areasonableprice hadall been snapped upby other specula-
tors. Thereis noevidence that the Matawok investors ever developed or
built on any of their tracts, but sold off their holdings piece-meal to
others when the price proved attractive.
Still another project undertaken by the Long Island Rail Road cor-

poration in thesebusy years was the organization of a police force to
controllosses and pilferageon the vastly expended freight yards of the
road. The Long Island Rail Road for many years had maintained a
small force of private detectives which investigated particular thefts
from freight cars but was too small to patrol the freight yards. Two
thingsprobably precipitated the decision ofPresidentPeters toorganize
amodern, large-scalepolice force; the enormous growth in the physical
plant ofthe Long Island RailRoad and the numerous new freightyards
tobe policed, and the deathon June 3, 1905of James Sarvis, chiefof the
old detective bureau. Sarvishad entered the serviceof the railroad as a
detective in 1890after a stint as a policeman in Long Island City. He
was extremely successful in detecting andprosecuting thieves and soon

was advanced to head of the force. His death at the ageof 61 gavepresi-
dent Peters the opportunity to abolish the old detective bureau and to
organize amodern police force.

Thenew force was set up on military lines and took over the duties
formerly exercised by the track watchmen, crossing watchmen, night
watchmen and freight damage & lost freight tracers. It was frankly
designed along the lines ofwhat PresidentPeters had worked with on
the Pennsylvania Railroad lineswest ofPittsburgh. Peters appointed to
head this bureau his own private secretary, Robert E. Kerkam, on the
basis ofKerkam's experiences as an ArmymanwithU.S. forces fighting
the Indians in the West and his later service with the WeatherBureau.
A regular school of instruction for railroad policemen was set up in
which 200 men could be selected and trained with strict discipline

On August 1, 1905 the specialpolice force went onduty for the first
time. We hear that the whole railroad had been divided into four sec-
tions with two lieutenants in immediatecontrol and in touch with the
numerous policemen andcrossing watchmen on day and night duty in
each section.

I. The North Shore Div. from Long Island City to Whitestone
Landing and to Port Washington.

11. Main Line andMontauk Divisionsbetween Long Island City and

111. The Atlantic, Manhattan Beach and Rockaway Beach Divisions.
IV. Everything east of Jamaica.
Headquarters at Long Island City included Superintendent Kerkam,
one inspector, one captain, four lieutenants and two freight & express
investigators. At East New Yorkwere onecaptain, two lieutenants and
at Jamaica, twolieutenants reporting to the captain at East New York.
The uniformed men, including those given special authority as special
patrolmen from the Commissioner ofPolice, numbered about 50 men.
Thesemen were detailed along the electric lines to insure that none of
the copper wire was stolen; others patrolled the freightyards to watch
loaded cars and platforms and still otherskept a sharp eye on cases and
packages broken in handling to insure that no goods were stolen from
the barrels, boxes and packages. Other men, acting in the capacity of
special deputy sheriffs and crossing watchmen at the more important
crossings, also received police authority. A small force ofmen in uni-
form patrolled the beach excursion trains to suppress rowdyism and

keep order on the crowded Rockaway platforms. These men wore a
badgeconsisting ofa five-pointed star with the words "Police Service—

Everyone on the force was required to submit regular reports ofall
happenings of note in their vicinity. The physical requirements for the
force were an age limitation of 21 to 35, aheight between 5 ft. 8 in. and
6 ft. 2 in. and a weight between 160 and 200 lbs. Everyone had to pass
the medical exam and had to be able toread and write the English lan-
guage. Supt. Kerkam reported directly to General Superintendent
Charles L. Addison.

The police were kept more than usually busy as an aftermath of the
Panic of 1907;hard times set in after October and unemploymentwas
heavy well into the summer and fall of 1908. Hundredsof men applied
daily to the Long Island Rail Road formenial jobs paying$35 to $40a
monthwhiledesperatemen for the first timein their livesweredriven to
steal orpilfer merchandise fromfreight cars.
In an interview given to the press in January 1909, Supt. Kerkam

said that the force consisted of 350 men which number included the
depot, terminal and yard patrolmen and the watchmen at crossings.
Therewas a day and night captain, a captain in chargeof the fire ser-
vice, two day and two night lieutenants, four day and four night
roundsmenand asmany patrolmenand watchmenas needed. The main
stress was on protection andprevention; the great handicapat that time,
in Kerkam's eyes, was that New York State had no trespass law. In
court,Kerkam's record was excellent: 90% convictions for felonies and
over 85% for misdemeanors.
President Peters was perhaps the first Long Island Rail Road presi-

dent to realize the value ofpublic relations and ofprojecting a positive
and favorable imageof the railroad to the public. TheBrooklyn League,
an organization of about 1000 members prominent in business and
industry and politically influential, was given guided toursof the new
tunnels, yards, substations etc. on several occasions in 1906 & 1907.
Peters courted the attention and good will of the Manhattanand Brook-
lyn press with elaborate tours of the Rockaways by train, trolley and
carriage and climaxedby dinners at theArverne Hotel. (1906) The oth-
er railroads in the metropolitan area—Erie, Lackawanna, Jersey Cen-
tral, etc.— got the chance to view the extensive electrification on the
Long IslandRail Road in tours conducted for the officersand operating
personnel in the comfort of the private car "2000" during the spring of

Oneof the sorest problems in operation that had first raised its head
in the 90's and hadbeen recurrent almost every year thereafterwas the
use of soft coal on theengines in long-haul serviceending theirruns in
Long Island City. The former city ofLong Island City under its formi-
dable mayorPatrick J. Gleason, used to conductsudden andwell-publi-
cized raids on the terminal yards toharass the Long Island Rail Road
officials and demonstrate to the electorate that theirhealth andwelfare
was paramount in the hearts of the politicians. When the City of New
York was formed in 1898, the soft coal problem again became a sore
one. All the railroads entering New York City were graduallymoving
toward the abolition of soft coal butbecause the change in locomotives
was an expensive one, thechange had tobe slow. The difference in the
cost of fuel was a large item. In 1904 the greatly increased use ofhard
coal on the Long Island Rail Road caused an increase of $181,055 in
locomotive fuel billsover 1903. How anthracite increased the coalbills
of a railroad is shown by the fact that in 1901 the Long Island paid
$403,000 for fuel and in 1904 $838,000. In 1905 the road was using
slightly over half anthracite and was fitting out its engines with the
smoke-consumingbrick hollow arch. But even the best technologywas
no substitute forelectrificationas the ultimatesolution to thesmoke and
cinders problem. Somesoft coalwas stillbeing used as late as 1908, for
in February, a justice of the Supreme Court granted an injunction per-
petually restraining the Long Island Rail Road from using soft coal in
its freight operations in the Holban Yards in Hollis. Ozone Park
residents also threatenedaction and in June another justice sitting in
SupremeCourt granted an injunction to aggrieved residents in Queens
Village. These injunctions must have been effective, for after this date
thereis no further record of soft coal cases filedagainst the Long Island
Rail Road.

The Morris Park shops were another source of community resent-
ment. In the open yard at the east end dozens of locomotives were
fueledand wateredand those thatwere scheduledfor runs lined up for
an hour and more, smoking and steaming until departure time. When
the wind blew from the north and west— and this was the prevailing
wind— the smoke drifted into the residential section of Dunton and
Morris Park, blackening house paint and depositing soot onwashlines
and on the clothes ofpassers-by. In March 1913 the railroadwas haled
into court on two occasionsand twoof its shopemployeeswereconvict-
ed. Again in August 1914, over 200 separate complaints were lodged

against the Long Island Rail Road as a corporation and several fines
were imposed.
By far the most constant and overriding concern on the Long Island

Rail Road during these first yearsof thecentury was the matter ofgrade
crossings. A serious accident in May 1897resulting in the death of five
well-connectedpersonsand the expensive lawsuits that followedfocused
the attention of the railroad on the necessity of eliminating wherever
possible the more than 900 gradecrossings on the road. The same acci-
dent had been instrumental in having the Legislature appropriateone
million dollarsannually for the elimination of gradecrossings through-
out New York State. Expenses would be met by aone-quarter contribu-
tion by the State, one quarter by the community and one-half by the
railroad. The Long Island Rail Road lost no timein taking advantageof
this legislation to get rid ofa few crossings every year. The usual proce-
dure was for the State Board ofRailroad Commissioners to holdhear-
ings in the villageaffected and to taketestimony fromlocal residents on
whether the elimination was desired at all, whether it was necessary,
and finally what damages would have to be paid for condemnation of
property or changes in grade.
In 1902 the engineering department of the railroadbegan surveying

through Jamaica, the Rockaways, Lynbrook, Rockville Centre, Free-
port, Babylon and Patchogue with the idea of formulating a general
plan forabolishing gradecrossings. Theideawas toget the localauthor-
ities interested first and then the property owners; if the Townboards
and trustees could come to some agreement, then the railroad could
approach the State commission.By planning future eliminations years
in advance, the railroad could forestall public andprivate improvements
to be made in villages on theline ofthe proposedelevation or depression
of the tracks. This would put Townand village authorities andprivate
developers on notice to adapt their improvements to the proposed
change of gradeand so save later expense.

Obviously, the most extensive grade crossing elimination project of
all was the Atlantic Avenue Improvement completed in 1905; at one
stroke 52 street crossings protected by gates, 36 crossings for pedestri-
ans and 8 street car crossings wereeliminated.The othermassive grade
crossing eliminationwas theBay Ridge Improvementof 1905-06, when
186crossings, both real and on the map to be openedlater, were elimi-
nated. The buildingof the Perm Tunnels and the laying-out of the Sun-
nyside Yards permitted themass eliminationofall thecrossings in Long
Island Cityand as far east asWoodside stationbetween 1905and 1910.

4-4-0passengerengine#54,Baldwin 1889,inLongIsland CityTerminal.(Zielphoto)


#14, a 4-6-0 dual service Camelback, Baldwin 1902,series G-548. (Holman
Collection) (Top)

#6, a 4-6-0 dual service Camelback, Baldwin 1901, series G-548. (Bottom)

#97, a 4-4-0 passenger engine, Baldwin 1904 (Holman Collection) (Top)
#214, a 4-4-0 passenger engine, Juniata 1906 (Holman Collection) (Bottom)

#131, a 4-6-0 tenwheeler, dual service engine, Brooks 1907 (Holman Collection)

#95,a 4-4-0 passenger locomotive, Baldwin 1904 (Holman
collection) (Bottom)

#95, a 4-4-0 passenger locomotive at Jamaica. Baldwin 1904,class D-565.
(Fagerberg photo) (Top)

#18, a 4-6-0 dual service engine, Baldwin 1903, series G-54A, later "James
Eichorn." (Goldsmith photo) (Bottom)


#184, an 0-6-0 typeswitcher, Baldwin 1893,at Richmond Hill (Fagerberg photo)

#81, an 0-6-0 switcher, Schenectady 1891,at MorrisPark. (Fagerberg photo)

#255, an 0-8-0 switcher, Pittsburgh 1918,at MorrisPark (Fagerberg
photo) (Top)

#323, B-B type electric, built by Altoona 1905, at Morris Park in 1932
(Fagerberg photo) (Bottom)

#52, a 4-4-0 passenger engine, Rogers 1889. Rebuilt by LIRR (Fagerberg photo)

#92,a 4-4-0 passengertype engine, Baldwin 1904 (Fagerberg photo) (Bottom)

# 19,a 4-6-0 type dual service engine, Baldwin 1903, type G-54SA(Fagerberg
photo) (Top)

#141, a 4-6-0 dual service engine, Brooks 1917. (Fagerberg photo) (Bottom)

#169, a 2-8-0 Consolidation engine, Juniata 1894,at Long Island City in 1924.
Class H-3 (Fagerberg photo) (Top)

#22, a 2-6-2T suburban passenger tankengine, Baldwin 1904 (Fagerberg photo)

#1104, first electric car type,MP-41, 1905. (Seyfried photo) (Top)
Interior ofan MP-41 showing seat arrangement. (Seyfried) (Bottom)

A train of MP-41's at Jamaica Tower. (Seyfried) (Top)
#1209, aMU Baggage-Mail car, ACF 1910. (Bottom)

#1378, steel combination car, ACF 1913, Series 1370-1381 (Top)
#1579, type MP-54A, series 1552-1601, ACF 1911. (Bottom)

#1382, passenger-baggage-mail car, type MPBM-54. Group #1382-1384, ACF
1914.(Holman Collection) (Top)

#1356, MUCombination car, typeMPB-54, Standard Steel 1910. (Bottom)

The large scaleelevations at Jamaicaand RichmondHill eliminated 15
morecrossings in a densely populated area; the Holban Yard elevation
added three more; the extensive relocation of the Main Line through
Forest Hills andKew Gardens added many more eliminations, some of
them over streets still unopened at that time. The last major accom-
plishment in thisperiod was the very extensive elimination ofall grade
crossings on the North Shore Division from Woodside through to
Douglaston. The finaldifficult and costly eliminationproject was com-
pleted in 1915 in the Woodside-Winfield area involving not only elimi-
nation ofcrossingsbut an actual relocationof the right ofway toget rid
of two dangerous reverse curves.
By the endofWorld War I just about all the grade crossings in the

populous west end of the island hadbeen eliminated with the one con-
spicuous exception of the Rockaways. This was a particularly difficult
area with unique problems. Because of the dense resort population in
the summer months, it was necessary to maintain crossingsat every sec-
ond or third street on the peninsula. The problem was further com-
poundedby the fact that steam locomotives, electric trains, trolleys and
Brooklyn Rapid Transit trains all operated on the same three tracks at
very frequent intervals. The only reason that no serious accidents
occurred despite these dangerous conditions was the fact that the sta-
tionswere very close to eachother,averaging only 6 to 8blocks apart so
that train operation was ofnecessity slow.

The eliminationof the gradecrossings in Rockaway faceduniquedif-
ficulties. Theright ofwaywas too narrow for the usual slopingembank-
ment and the residents opposed aChinese wall in any case. The railroad
could not buy property to widen the right of way because it was too
costly in a resort area where the peninsula itself was hardly four blocks
wide. A depressed roadway was out of the question because the salt
water table wasonly 10 ft.below the surface. The only other alternative
left, an elevated structure, was unsightly and cut off the ocean or bay
view forsomeone no matterwhere it was located.

The elimination question first came up in September and October
1901 for the village of Far Rockaway alone but no decision could be
reached; agitation to eliminate crossings on the whole peninsula was
renewed in February 1913and February 1916 but costs hadrisen in the
meantime. The problemremained insoluble for another quartercentury
until the elevated structure was finally and reluctantly accepted in

In the early years of the century several men once prominent in the
history of the Long Island Rail Road passed on:

Walter Horman: died Feb. 10, 1902.Hebuilt many ofthe small
wooden stations with their Victorian ginger-
bread scrollsaw decorations during Oliver
Charlick's regime. Died in Bayport at 83.

Everett R. Reynolds: DiedDec. 26, 1905 in Manhattan.He was vice
president and general manager of the LIRR
during Austin Corbin's regime from

JohnRogers Maxwell: died Dec. 11, 1910 in Manhattan. For many
years he was president of the Central Railroad
of New Jersey and was vice-president of the
LIRR and a financialbacker of the road with
Austin Corbin.

JacobR. Shipherd: died in Richmond Hill May 8, 1905. Early in
life a financier and later a lawyer, Shipherdin
1873 bought control of the South Side R.R.
and madehimselfpresident. Within monthshe
was destroyedin thePanicof 1873and losthis
railroad to foreclosureproceedings.

William Cassidy: died July 1903; entered LIRR service 1868;
section foremanunderH.C. Moore, thenroad-
master. Supervised laying of the trackson the
Central Railroad ofL.I.

Isaac D. Barton: died Aug. 21, 1914 at 84at hishome in Flush-
ing. The most prominent and probably the
best operating manager the Long Island Rail
Road ever had. Superintendent of LIRR Oct.
1867-1872; railway supplies 1872-1876;
superintendent New York & Manhattan
Beach Ry. 1877-1881; again superintendent
LIRR 1881-1892. Later, he served as supt. of
the Brooklyn trolley system and retired in

No history of thisera of the Long Island Rail Road would be com-
plete without a briefmentionof Roxy, the LIRR dog. Perhaps the very
fact that the Long IslandRail Road hada mascotat all is proofofwhat
kind of railroad the Long Island was in these days— a road of small

towns essentially and run by men of sentiment and heart. On a dreary
day in December 1901, Roxy, a dilapidated specimen of dog, drifted
into the Long Island City yards. He was no particular breed— "an
ornery yellerdog." The railroad agent at Garden City took him home
and in no timeat all, Roxy developeda liking forrailroad men, baggage
cars, caboosesand engines. Hebecamea great pet of the train crewsand
became an inveterate wanderer. He favored spending his nights at Gar-
denCity andwas said tobe infallible in alwaysmaking the right change
at Jamaica; his days were spent in all the yards and terminals on the
Island. The railroad crews had a solid silver collar made for him
inscribed, "I am Roxy, the Long Island dog— whose dog are you ?"
When Roxy broke his shoulderin an escapade and had tobe hospital-
ized, it was reported in the press as fully as was theextension ofelectrifi-
cation to a new branch. President Peters had a pass added to his collar
allowing him free passage for life on LIRR trains. Roxy developed
dropsy in 1913 and spent his last sixmonths in the care of a Jamaica
veterinarian. He died in June 1914 and was buried at Merrick station.
His tombstone survived at the edge of the parking lot till the grade
crossing elimination of 1976 destroyedit.

The Atlantic Avenue Improvement

THELong Island RailRoad, after a lapse of 16years, returned todowntownBrooklyn in 1877. Theold objections ofthe residentsto steam operation—noise, smoke, accidents and dangers tolife
and limb—were all re-awakened by the appearance of locomotives in
the street and it took seven or eight years of expensive litigation to
establish beyond challenge the right of the railroad to run trains in
AtlanticAvenueonits ownprivateright-of-way. As the 1880's and 90's
passed and Brooklyn rapidly increased in population, the residents
became aware of a new objection. Asrailroad traffic steadily increased,
the movement of trains becamemore and more frequent and the inter-
ruption to traffic across Atlantic Avenue became more and more con-
stant and the waitsof longerduration. Complaintsbegan tobe voicedin
the press about the Chinesewall of the railroad, not to mention the fre-
quent accidents to vehicles and the deaths of pedestrians trying to
"beat" the crossing gates.
Finally, onMay 28, 1896, Mayor WursterofBrooklyn, acting under

Chap. 394 of theLaws of 1896, appointed a commission of five men to
"examine into and report a plan for the relief and improvement of
AtlanticAvenue." Eightmonths later the commission reportedback to
the mayor, recommending legislation looking to the removal of the
tracks from the surfaceofAtlantic Avenue.A billwas then introduced
in the Legislature, approved by the mayors ofNew Yorkand Brooklyn,
andbecame law onMay 18, 1897as Chap. 449 of the Laws of 1897. The
law provided for a commission of seven members to be known as the
Board of Atlantic Avenue Improvement. Mayor Wurster reappointed
his former fiveappointees andadded the names ofPresidentBaldwin of
the Long IslandR.R. and CharlesM. Pratt, vicepresident. The bill pro-
vided for the removal of steam from Atlantic Avenue by means of tun-
nel and elevated structures, the cost to be borne halfby the city up to
$1,250,000 and halfby the Long Island R.R.

Unfortunatelythe Act further provided that the agreement shouldbe
dependent upon the construction ofan underground double track rail-
road from Flatbush and Atlantic Avenues to Manhattan at or near
MaidenLane and the operation of Long Island R.R. trains through it.
(see chapter "Background ofPerm Tunnels")Asnag soon developed. A
clause in the newcity charterlimited the life ofany franchise to25 years
and the railroadwas understandably unwilling to embark uponsuch an
expensive enterprise for anything less than a fifty-year franchise. 1898
passed withnoresolution of thisdifficulty. Then in 1899 the Legislature
wasasked to amend thecharter. Thiswas finallypassed as Chap. 564 of
the Laws of 1899. Accordingly, the Long Island R.R., under its subsidi-
ary, the NewYork &Long Island Terminal Railway Company, applied
to the Municipal Assembly for a franchise. TheAssembly temporized
and the measure died in 1899. TheLong IslandR.R. re-introduced it on
Jan. 2, 1900, but again the Railroad Committee of the Assembly did
nothing. In disgust, Pres. Baldwin withdrew the application onMarch
13, 1900.
The Brooklynpeople who badly wanted the Atlantic Avenue tracks

removed were in despair andprevailedon their legislators tointroduce a
billmodifying the originalact by permitting the separationof the Atlan-
ticAvenue Improvementfrom the tunnelscheme,but requiring the city
still to pay the costs up to $1,250,000. The Legislature passed the bill
butMayor VanWyckkilled it with his veto in April 1900. Thebill was
thenre-introduced into the Legislature in 1901 andpassed. MayorVan
Wyck again vetoed it, but this time the Brooklyn representatives were
determined and the bill was re-passed overhis veto, becoming law on
April 8, 1901.
The Board for the Atlantic Avenue Improvement then met for

organizationand appointed Walter M. Meserolegeneral superintendent
and J. V. Davies of the Long Island R.R. chief engineer. The Penn-
sylvania Railroad, which had during the course of the long litigation
bought out the Long Island R.R., approved the scheme.

The engineers for the Improvement, in preparing the final maps for
the work, took two things into consideration: the natural fall in the
gradeofAtlanticAvenue from west to east and the cost ofthe total pro-
ject. At Bedford Avenue, AtlanticAvenue falls fromits higher elevation
betweenFlatbush andBedford,but at Howard Avenue, the gradeofthe
avenue rises again. Because of this change in levels, the engineers
resolved to builda subway from Flatbush Avenue toBedford Aye., and
then an elevated road from Bedford to Howard Avenue; thenanother

subway at Howard Avenue and at East New York another elevated.
Such a plan not only took advantage of the topography but had the
additionalvalue of lowering the cost. To put the railroad underground
for the entire distance would have cost additional millions of dollars.
TheCity ofBrooklyn, not New York City as a whole, hadbeen liable
for the original plan; the necessity for savingmoneywas imperativeand
the subway-elevated combination was the cheapest plan that could
achieve the desired objectives.

The Board divided up the whole Improvement into these four sec-

Section I: a tunnelfrom Flatbush Avenue to Bedford Aye. 6700 ft.
Sect. II: an elevated section from Nostrand Aye. to Ralph 8010 ft.


Sect. Ill: a tunnel section from Ralph Aye. ToHoward Aye. 2910 ft.
Sect. IV: an elevated section from Manhattan Crossing 5573 ft.

(Snediker Avenue) to Atkins Avenue

In the springof 1901, ColonelMeseroleanda staffofa dozensurvey-
ors wentover the lineof Section IV, a distance of justover a mile. The
men located the site for each of the pillar locations while engineersand
draughtsmen got up detailed plans for the steel work. Col. Meserole
planned to let the first contracts for the foundations of the pillars of the
elevated structure in Julyand the steelworkcontracts at the same time.
At the western end the inclinewas to begin at Snediker Avenue and

to reach its full height at Williams Avenue, where the steel elevated
structure would begin. The pillars were designed to be 40 ft. apart and
40 ft.apart in the cross section of the highway. The inclineand elevated
was tobe four tracks wideat this point, which was noproblemsince the
company owned a 49 VS footstrip in the center of the street. The pillars
would be built outside the then-existing line of surface tracks. As soon
as the Fall 1901 timetablereduced the numberof trains operating,phys-
ical work wouldbegin. TheBoard thought theworkcould be completed
in two years; in reference tomanpower Col. Meserole madesome com-
ments that soundodd today in the lightof our contemporary ethnicatti-
tudes and prejudices: Americans and Swedes would be hired for the
skilled work; Italians and others for the digging and unskilled work.

All through the summer of 1901 theBoard was actively at work pre-
paring elaborateplansand specifications; JacobsandDaviesofManhat-
tan, consulting engineers for the Long Island R.R., prepared the plans.

Finally, on Oct. 31, 1901, the commission awarded three initial con-
tractsaggregating$989,665. The contract for furnishing the steel for the
twoviaduct sections between Bedford andRalph Avenues andbetween
Shepherd Aye. and Manhattan Crossing, and for the underground
work, was awarded to the American Bridge Co., a subsidiary of the
United States Steel Corp., their bid being much lower than any of the
others. 16,000 tons of steel was estimated to be necessary for the con-
structionof the viaductsand undergroundwork. Thecontract price was

JohnMcNamee ofBrooklyn wasawarded the contract for two abut-
ments for the approaches to the viaductsonSect. IVand he was also to
build the foundations for the viaduct columns.This contract was worth
TheUnited Engineering & Contracting Co. got the contract for the

buildingof the two underground conduitsof 32 ducts eachholding the
feederwires from Manhattan Crossing to Atkins Avenue. As for time,
the latter two companies had to finish their work before the summer
timetablebecameeffective in June1902.Thesteel companyhad to begin
furnishing the roof beams for the tunnel section in February 1902 and
mustbegin the erection of the viaduct section in October 1902after the
expirationof the summer timetablereduced the train schedules. Engi-
neerMeserole estimated that the whole job would take two years and
cost $3,500,000.

On Dec. 3, 1901 an impressive public ceremony was staged to mark
thebeginning of the Improvement. 2500 tickets wereissuedby the 23rd
Regiment Armory at Atlantic &Bedford Avenues to prominent Brook-
lynites. The lieutenant governor of thestate, the borough president, the
state senator, the mayor andmany other luminaries attendedandmade
speeches in the drill hall. At 4:30 Mayor Van Wyck turned the first
shovelful of earthat the corner ofBedford andAtlantic Avenueswhere
the subway section would begin, and in the evening the prominent
guests were entertained at a banquet at the prestigious Union League
In December the physical work onSect. IV of the Improvement got

underway. There were 266 pillar foundations to be set. Each pyramidal
base consisted of five layers ofconcrete. Each layer was one and a half
feet thick and the lowest one, which was setat a depth ofnine feetbelow
the surface, was96" X8' face surface. The faceof each succeeding lay-
er was onefoot smaller each way than the oneupon whichit rested. The
top layer was 36" X 4' and was 18 inches below the surface of the

ground. The layers ofeach foundationwere anchored by four largeiron
bolts extendingup through them all to the surface ofthe ground. Each
pyramidal base contained 7 3/4 yards ofconcrete. A bell-shaped cap
surmounted the cement foundationwithsufficiently widely curved sides
to protect the pillars from damage by passing trucks or other vehicles.

The pillars were 12" X 23" and made of the best open-hearth steel.
The height of the pillars varied slightly but the average level of the
tracks above the street surfacewas 15 to 16 feet. Theheavy girders that
supported the tracks wereof solid steel plate 44 ft. long and 4 feet in
depth with flangesat top andbottom. The track girderswere three feet
deep and on these rested the wooden cross ties for carrying the rails.
There was a timber guard rail outside each of the rails. Four brackets
were attached to each pillar. The girders supported the latter in place
and gave added stability to the entire structure. The section girders in
Sect. IVwere 30 feet apart. The whole length of Sect. IV was 5573 ft. or
a little over a mile.

It is obvious from theseextraordinarily heavy specifications that the
road was designed not only for passenger cars but for the heaviest
freightlocomotives which would have to use this structure toreach the
large East New York freightyardsalongVan SinderenAvenue. Assum-
ing that all the freight cars wereof steel and carried50 to 60 tonseach
of coal, ice, beef, lumber, etc. the necessity to have solid underpinnings
to sustain such weight is obvious.
During December 1901 the Long Island R.R. tracks were shifted to

the curb lines from AtkinsAvenue to Manhattan Crossing and by the
endof the year, seventy of the great excavations for the pillars hadbeen
dug. In February 1902, theBoard made achange in Sect. 111, the tunnel
section between Howard Avenueand SackmanStreet. It was found that
this would have required a raising of the level of these streets at the
Atlantic Avenue crossingeight feet, thus damaging adjoining property.
Toavoid this, the Board decided on an open cut between Cooper Place
and Howard Avenue, the tunnelsection to beginat HowardAvenue. At
the eastern portal there would be an open cut between Stone Avenue
and Sackman Street, the tunnel section endingat the east side of Stone

In April 1902 workbegan on the construction of the concrete abut-
ments for the ramp at Snediker Avenue (380 ft. long) and at Atkins
Avenue on the east end. Both were due to be completed by June 1902.
Trenches hadalso been dug andmanyof the ducts hadbeen laid for the
feed wires for the electrical equipment of the line. In mid-April work

began on the abutments for the inclineat Bedford Avenue andat How-
ard Avenue on the east end. The big joball duringApril 1902 was the
shifting of the Long Island R.R. tracks to the curbline oneach side of
the street both east and west of Manhattan Crossingand out to Atkins

During April 1902 the American Bridge Co. delivered 1000 tons of
finished steel girders for roofing over the tunnel sections, while 3150
tons ofadditional plates and rolled beams were sent from the rolling
mills to the Elmira Shops to be made intobeams. Ofthis 1900 tonsallo-
cated to the East New York elevated section was brought to Brooklyn
only as needed. 1000 tonsof girders arrived in gondolacars loaded two
tiersdeepandwere stored ona side trackon the Manhattan BeachDivi-
sion south of the East New York station.
A largenumber ofmen was engaged also at this time in excavating

for the tunnelapproaches at Bedford Avenue andat StoneAvenue. At
Bedford two big derricks were set up and 500 men were put to work
with picks and shovels. Hundreds of car loads of earth were daily
hauled out on Long Island Rail Road flat cars.
In the midstof this feverish activity on Atlantic Avenue, the Board

and the Long Island Rail Road were hit with an injunction granted at
the request of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit forbidding all further work.
The BRT claimed that, under the lease from the Nassau Electric Rail-
road, a BRT subsidiary, the Long Island RailRoad was limited to a sur-
face railroad. President Baldwin vigorously denounced this injunction,
claiming that the reasons citedwere merelya smoke screen. In July the
court brought in a verdict for the Long Island Rail Road and the
Improvement Board and denied the BRT's motion for a permanent
injunction on several grounds:

1. Theplaintiff would not only notbe injured but would actually bene-
fit by the improvements currently being made to its property.

2. The legislationauthorizing the Improvementis constitutional.
3. The plaintiff knew and observed the progress of the Improvement

since 1896 and never raised any objection.
4. Contracts have been let, streets torn up, tracks shifted and men

employed. It is toolate tostop this work now after six months.

In mid-summerof 1902 the work on the avenue was causing much
grumbling among the railroad patrons. Theshifting of the tracks to a
new roadbed and the detoursnecessary around theembankments made
passage for the trains slowand difficult. The temporary tracks werenot

as solidly built nor as straight as the permanent ones and the constant
movementsofworkmen andmaterials furthersloweddown trainmove-
ments, a state of affairs all the more painfully evident on the crowded
summer timetable.
By July 15 all the pedestals for the pillars onSect. IVhad been com-

pleted. West of Bedford Avenue the excavation for the tunnel had
progressed 250 feetand was 17 feet in depth and 36 feet inwidth, a size-
ablepit and one thathad to be carried 6700 feet to FlatbushAvenue. On
Section 111, the other tunnel section, the excavationmovedmorerapidly
and thousands of tons of earth had been dug from the half-mile long
By Aug. 1 the East New York tunnel had been dug out anywhere

from four to eight feetdeep and 36 feetwide and two temporary tracks
laid in the ditch, one oneach side, so that dirt could be excavatedand
dumped directly into flat cars forquick removal. At thispoint theexca-
vators had to stop and begin to shore up the sidesbefore they caved in
from the vibration of the moving trainsat the curb. On theother tunnel,
the contractor, the Wilson & Bailey Co., had finished digging out the
tunnelfully betweenBedford and FranklinAvenuesand werebeginning
to put in the concrete sidesand approaches.
No less excellentprogress was done on Sect. IV. Hereall the concrete

foundations for the pillarshad been completed. The American Bridge
Co. had 4000 tonsofpillarsall ready and the contractors were planning
toerect them right after Labor Day when the train traffic tapered off
and offered less interference. The tons of dirt taken out from the two
tunnel sections these days were being used at two places: to fill in the
trestle work on the Rockaway line between Woodhaven Junctionand
Ozone Park and to fill in a triangular four-acre tract of meadow at
Hammels for a sub-station site.

The final progress report for the year 1902 dates toOct. 1. By this
time the contractors reckoned that 25% of the work had been done.
Wilson & Bailey had completed all 666 of the concrete foundations for
the pillars on both sectionsII and IV. The firmhad also removed 50,000
cv. yds. of earth from tunnel section 111andwas due to finish by Jan. 1.
Pillarerection onSect. IV was due to begin on Oct. 1 and to continue
through the winter reaching completion by April 15. Thecontract for
the timber workon the floor ofboth elevated sectionswas awarded to
Eppinger & Russell of Long Island City. The contract called for
1,000,000board feet of ties, platforms and guard rails of every kind.

The American BridgeCo. which had the contract for the steel work
of the entire structure had, up to Sept. 1, 1902 rolled out 9150 tons of
steel. Of this 3800 tonshad already been made up into finished work
comprising all the material for the roofs of the tunnelsections. 16,000
tons ofsteelwould be neededaltogether, and, at the price of $16per ton,
this came to $850,000.
At the end of the year 1902 a small segment of Sect. I west ofBed-

ford Avenue reached completion in all respects, giving an idea ofwhat
the whole tunnel would be like. The width of the tunnel inside the
retaining walls was 26 feet. The concrete floors were 18" thickand the
retaining walls varied from seven feetat the base to three feetat the top.
Theheight of the tunnelfrom the ties to theroof was 15VI feet. The roof
consisted of I-beams two feet in depth with arches ofconcrete between
the beams. The concrete bottom of the tunnel was in the shape of an
inverted arch, the depression of whichwas filled withbroken stone on
which the tracks were laid.

As the tunnel approached Flatbush Avenue two obstructions
loomed. The track of the Douglass Street (later St. John's) trolley
entered Atlantic Avenue at Washington Avenue and ran along the
south sideof thestreet in the spacenow needed for the temporary east-
bound track ofthe Long IslandRail Road. By specialarrangementwith
the BRT, the line was detoured over Bergen Street until permanent
tracks couldbe relaid on Atlantic Avenue. More seriouswas the elevat-
ed structure of the Brooklyn Bridge-Jamaicaconnection which entered
Atlantic Avenue from the south at SixthAvenue and ran in the center
of the street toFifth Avenue. The engineersnowplanned to remove the
foundations of thesepillars and to hold up the elevated, temporary sup-
ports would be constructed consisting of two horizontal beams at the
street surfaceriveted firmly to the columnsand supportedat theends by
blocking, whichwould be outside the lineof the tunnel. Thesteelbeams
in the new tunnel would later serveas the permanentsupport of the ele-
vated columns.

To the dismay and annoyance of the Long Island Rail Road, the
excellent progress ofthe AtlanticAvenue Improvementwas interrupted
at the endofthe year 1902by twoattacks, oneby theReformed Church
ofBrooklyn, allegingnoiseand threat to lightand air which was easily
disposed of; more serious was that of New York City Comptroller
Grout who objected to the elevated sectionsand wanted the entire line
in a subway. Whenit waspointed out that this would increase the cost

by $2,000,000, noneofwhich the City would pay,and delay completion
by two years, it was agreed to let the matter rest.

Although the winter weather of 1902-03 sloweddown the Improve-
ment work, much progress was made on the iron work. On Mar. 16,
1903 an impromptuceremony was held at AtkinsAvenue at the begin-
ning of theincline on the occasionof driving the first spike into the first
rail to be laid anywhere on the line. At this time the ties andrails had
been laid down toVanSiclen Aye. and the ironwork wasall up to Ver-
mont Avenue, but owing to a strike against the American Bridge Co.,
no work had been done for two weeks past. Although the strike effec-
tively stopped progress on Sections II and IV, work went on all the
more intensively on the tunnel sections. We hear that on Apr. 22, for
example, the longestlineof dirt cars ever drawnthrough the new Atlan-
tic Avenue tunnel passed through that morning—43cars, eachcarrying
an average of 20 tons of earth and drawn by engine #103.

On Apr. 29, 1903 the strike ended and work was resumed on Sect.
IV. In five days the structure advanced to New Jersey Avenue and on
May 7, the last girderswere erected. The riveters, tie layersand painters
worked hard all through May 1903 to have the section ready for trains
on May 27, the start of the summer timetable.

Elevated section II laggedfarthest behind. All of the400 foundations
were due to be completed on May 6. New contractors, Terry & Tench,
were poised to begin work on the superstructure. Meanwhile, tunnel
Sect. 11lwas nowalmostwholly excavatedandmaterial for theconcrete
walls was being installed and floorslaid.

By May 21 all 400 of the pedestal foundations for the elevated Sect.
11l had been completed and the great traveling crane began work to
erect the pillars and girders for the superstructure. This mileand ahalf
long stretchwas expected to take threemonths to complete. An impor-
tant alteration in the gradeat Nostrand Avenue was made at this time.
Since the elevated sloped tojointhe inclineat thispoint, the bedofNos-
trand Avenue where it passed under the railroadwas lowered two feet
nine inches and the trolley tracks lowered with it. The slowness of
Sheehan& Co., the contractors at this point, forced the railroad engi-
neers to finish the work themselves.

On May 28, 1903 theeastbound trainsof the Long Island R.R. began
running over thenew section IV inEast NewYork, the very first section
of the Improvement to be pressed into service.

During June 1903 the contractor on elevated section II had erected
47 bents and promised to finish in 19 working days. The excavation on

Tunnel Section I was now approachingCarlton Avenue. Surprisingly, a
spurwasbuilt into thesouth side of the tunnelwall just west ofFranklin
Aye. to provide for a connection with the BRT Brighton line.
On July 1, 1903,while a long trainof 28 freight cars was climbing the

incline between Snediker and Hinsdale Avenues, one car derailed and
fell down to the street onto the westbound track still in use. A rapid
transit traincame along half a minute later but was stopped in time to
prevent a collision.

On July 20, 1903 the westbound track on elevated Sect. IV was
thrown open to traffic andat the same time the last rapid transit station
on the groundat Linwood Street wasabandoned. Close to 100flagmen
were thrown outof employmentby the opening of this Srst fullsection
of the Improvement.
By the endofAugust 1903Wilsonand Bailey had constructed tunnel

#1 from Bedford Avenue 2000 ft. west to Grand Avenue. Between
Bedford andClasson Avenue the tunnelhad even been roofed over and
the street restored. On elevated Sect. II riveting hadbeen done on half
the elevated section and deck workerswere laying ties andrails. Tunnel
Sect. 11l had its concrete sidewalls halfup and theroof on for two-fifths
of a mile. Over the roof was a layer of roofing paper and over thata
thick layer of roofing asphalt.
By Oct. 1 all of the tunnel section 111 hadbeen excavatedand all the

flooringand side walls done and roofed over. Completion was set for
Jan. 1, 1904. On elevated Section II the riveting was four-fifths done, all
but three blocksofpaintingdone and the tiesandrails laid as farwest as
Schenectady Aye. Completion was set for Nov. 1. Tunnel Sect. I had
been entirely completed toGrandAvenue and the side wallswere up to
St. James Place. Only four longblocksremained to theend of the tunnel
whichby contract was at South ElliottPlace. Even in this segment the
side walls were up.

Justbefore the year 1903 ended, the Long Island R.R. issued a gener-
al order to begin running the trains on elevated Sect. II on Tuesday,
Nov. 17, but an unexpected delay at the last minute moved the date to
Monday, Nov. 23, 1903. With both the elevated sections now in use,
only the two tunnel sections remained for completion in 1904.
The next great problem the Long Island R.R. faced was the total

rebuilding of Flatbush Avenue station. When the railroad had re-
entered Brooklyn in 1877 the stables of the Atlantic Avenue Railroad
hadbecome the station and passenger car yard. Unfortunately, accom-
modations were painfully cramped. There were only six short tracks

abreast for passenger trains, four short storage tracks and threeshort
tracks leading to a turntable. A rowofprivate housesoccupied theHan-
son Place front. On FlatbushAvenue 100 feetoffrontage and 1187" of
depth was occupied by the 13thRegiment Armory. The corner of Han-
son Place and Flatbush Avenue was an unoccupied lot, roughly 108 X
43. If the Long Island Rail Road was ever to have a modern spacious
station at Flatbush Avenue, it would have to acquire these sites some-
In March 1903 the railroadmade its first move to acquire thearmory

which had seen little use since formally abandoned by the Army, after
which the Board ofEducation had used it as a storehouse. Thecontrol-
ler had his own appraisal made and claimed that the property was
worth $125,000, but when the railroad offered topay this sum, he still
refused to sell. The comptroller put the property up at auction on Mar.
10and Henry Roth, a builder, got the property for $140,500. It turned
out thatRoth wasbidding on behalfof the railroadand a month later, it
was quietly transferred through a chain of intermediaries to the rail-

The Long Island had no difficulties inacquiring the row of 20 X 100
housesonlots alongHanson Place. Thecornerplot owned by the Rich-
ardson Estate, the founder ofwhich had been "Deacon" Richardson,
father of the Atlantic Avenue Railroad, was the next obstacle. The
trustees, fearful of condemnation, put up the property for auction on
April 8, 1903 andbid it in for $75,000 soas to establish that sumas its
value on condemnation. Some time during the next three months an
agreement was reached on the value of the two lots. After thisacquisi-
tion the railroad owned the entire tract.
After expending five and a halfmillion dollars for a landmark pro-

ject, it was only fitting that the railroad shouldcap the effort witha divi-
sion terminal as grand and as bold in conception as the Improvement
itself hadbeen. The Long Island, through its amicable relationswith the
McDonald-Belmontsubway syndicate, had in minda largeunion termi-
nal building that would serve the IRT as well as the Long Island Rail
Road, and with a physical connection to the subway when the track
reachedFlatbush & Atlantic Avenues in the near future, so that IRT
trains could run out to Jamaica. Such an arrangement would be far
moreadvantageous to the Long Island than the Brooklyn Bridge-Jamai-
ca service currently operating by contract with the BRT. The station
building would be at least threelevels, with a lower-level floor fora pas-
senger terminal, a street floor for a waiting room, driveway and freight

delivery, and an upper floor for freight tracks. Above thiscouldbe built
a multi-storiedoffice building, the largest inBrooklyn. Contracts would
soon have to be let for digging out the terminal yardand AtlanticAve-
nue in frontof it so that the tunnel, now completed to within twoblocks
of the station, couldlead into a wide and spacious underground termi-

One almost insoluble problem arose almost immediately in connec-
tion with thedemolition of the old Flatbush Avenue station. If service
were to continueinto Flatbush Avenue all during the construction peri-
od, wherewould trains terminate?Therewere only twosurface tracks in
Atlantic Avenue; besides these, the railroad owned a freight yardonly
825 feet longon the south side of the street between sth and 6th Ave-
nues withonly half a dozen tracks in it. The dilemmawas temporarily
solved by utilizing the existing elevated connectionwith the Fifth Ave-
nue Elevated (built 1899). This connection left the surface ofAtlantic
Avenue at Carlton Avenue, entered the yard, ran up a small incline
about 80 feet long and thencontinued as an elevated linepassing out of
the yard and then back into Atlantic Avenue at 6th Avenue. Here it
continued directly above thesurface tracks to Fort Greene Place where
it entered the terminal yard and continued straight on just inside the
property line to a junctionwith the Fifth Avenue Elevated road.
The railroad decided to take the section of the elevated structure

immediately above its old station and to construct temporary wooden
platforms alongside the tracks. Here the through trainswould stop and
discharge passengers,while the Rapid Transit trains would do the same
or continueon to the Brooklyn Bridge via the Fifth Avenue Elevated as
usual. Beginning Oct. 1, 1903 the heavy wooden underpinnings for the
new platforms were "hung" on each side of the elevated structure.
Theseplatforms were 400 feet long and six feet six inches wide. Since
the twonewplatforms gainedwere still inadequate, the railroadplanned
to dig out AtlanticAvenuebetween Fifth andFlatbush Avenuesas soon
aspossible, put a roofon it, and then lay three tracks on the surface of
the street fora widerand fuller temporary terminal. This would have to
do until the new underground tracks on the Long Island Rail Road's
own property could be finished and used for train service.
At the corner ofAtlantic and Flatbush Avenues and just under the

temporary platforms, the Long Island built a little one-story wooden
temporary depot building for the use of passengers. During the last
weekof Dec. 1903 theold redbrick Armory building was razed.

During February 1904 the excavation of the site of the new under-
ground station wasput up for bidding. Thestation area was 800 feet in
length and in width varied from 150feet to 360 feet. In shape, it some-
what resembled a fan, the handle or narrow portion to extend under
Atlantic Avenue. The floor of the station was to be 18 feet and more
below street level. A roof 100 feet in width would extend the whole
length of the structure over its southerlyhalf. Heavy retaining walls, 14
feet thick at their base, would enclose the station. The track layout
inside the terminal was planned as follows:

2 through tracks,one eastbound, one westbound,connecting the Long
Island Rail Road and the IRT.

4 terminal stands, one holding four cars, one five cars, one nine cars
and one eleven cars.

3 storage terminal tracks
1 express track
1 track reserved for the wholesale dressed meat traffic concentrated

along Fort Greene Place.
5 short service tracks

The downtown passenger concourse at the west end of today's under-
ground stationwas not apart of the plans and access to the downstairs
platforms was available only by staircases from the street level station.

The street level station was to have a waiting room and ticketoffice
andbroad stairwayswould lead to the platformsof the tracksbelow. On
the Hanson Place side would be acourt yard fora carriageapproach to
the station. Theexpress and baggage business would be cared for in the
buildings to be constructedover the northeast corner of the yard front-
ing on Hanson Place. The express shed and yard would occupy an area
150 X 100. Five tracks would be located directly under the express
buildingand goods wouldmove upand down by elevators. The railroad
held offbuilding any kind of super-structure on the massive walls of the
foundations out ofbusiness caution; theywishedto see first whatkind of
increased traffic would result once the IRT subway arrived.
In the meantime the workon the AtlanticAvenueImprovementcon-

tinued. By July 1, 1904 the firstof the two tunnelsections, Sect. 111, had
been entirely completed, and on Sept. 16, 1904 eastbound trainsbegan
using it, and on October 1, the westbound trains.

TheDegnonContracting Co. which wasat this timeworkingon the
Steinway Tunnel for the Belmont interests won the contract for the

excavationof the Flatbush Avenueyard in April 1904andwent right to
work. The Degnon Co. had to plan the excavation of the station site
carefully in order to interfere as little as possiblewith the regular train
operation in the terminal. To this end the company began its work in
May 1904 at the far westand north endof the site where the armory,
the Richardson plot and the private houses along Hanson Place had
stood. The methodadopted byDegnonwas first to excavate the sites for
the heavy retaining wallson the north (HansonPlace) and south sides
(Flatbush Aye.), install the wallsand thenexcavate the dirt inbetween.
During May and June the Degnon Co. began removing thousandsof

tons of stone and soil from the station site. Temporary tracks for dirt
cars werelaidand hoisting engines installed,while the earth, dug outby
scores ofworkmen, was hoisted to dump carsby means ofbig buckets
holding halfa ton each. All the dirt taken from the excavation was
being transportedtoFresh Pond Junction whereit was used in filling in
the swampy groundin therear of the Lutheran Cemetery; thecemetery,
in exchange for this benefaction, granted a right of way through its
property for the projected New YorkConnecting Railroad. Theexcava-
tion work wentonall during the summer of 1904. By the endofOctober
the south wallhad been completed and the north one started.

By late fall of 1904 nearly two acres had been excavated to the
required depthof 20 feet. Theexcavation was creeping closerand closer
to the old terminaltracks along the AtlanticAvenue side still in use. As
soon as the roof could be completed upon the excavation in Atlantic
Avenue and new tracks laid thereon, the old terminal tracks could be
taken up and the site dug out.

By Nov. 20 the excavators had removed and dug out the brick wall
that had separated the terminal yard from the sidewalkalong Atlantic
Avenue andhad removed the southernmost track and platform. Mean-
while, the roofof thesection in Atlantic Aye. betweensth and 6th Ayes.
and some distance toward Flatbush Avenue was about three-quarters
completed. It was planned that by January 1 the roof would be wholly
completed, the tracks laid onit and the old terminalclosed upaltogeth-

During December unfavorable weather set in, delaying progress on
the long improvement. However, just about all the north or Hanson
Place wall for thenew stationwas nowcomplete andhalf the entire sta-
tion site dugout. Thedate for transferof the terminal tracks from their
old site to theroof inAtlantic Avenue had to bepushedup from Janua-
ry 1 to February 1 and thenMay 1.

By the endofJanuary 1905 the diggerswere almostup to the founda-
tions of the oldstation. In late February it became clear just how the
track layout of the temporary station inAtlantic Avenuewould be. This
was an important matter because of the imminent introduction of the
first electric service into Flatbush Avenue.The engineersrevealed that
the electric trains would come in via the new tunnel as far as Carlton
Avenue, thenexit into the yard, pass throughit and come to the surface
at the corner or 6th Avenue. At this point there wasa longerdistance
between twopillars of the incline than the average space and the tracks
would go through thatopeningand sogo out onto the roof of the exca-
vation inAtlanticAvenue nearFlatbush andFifth Avenues. Thiswould
be the new Flatbush Avenue terminus for the spring and summer of
1905 until the new stationsite could be completed.
By the endofMarch 1905 the excavatorshad largely dugout the for-

mer terminal siteand the retaining wallsalong Ashland Place and Han-
sonPlace were completed. The endof Aprilwitnessed thecompletion of
track laying on the AtlanticAvenue roof and trains werealready being
run into this temporary four-track terminal. Since space was limited,
extra tracks werelaid in AtlanticAvenue between South Oxford Street
andCarlton Avenue with accommodation for48 cars.
In thegreat excavation meanwhile, the retaining wall behind the beef

houseson Ft. Greene Place was being installed. The dirt under the old
terminal yardand platformswas meanwhilerapidly disappearing under
theassault ofpowerful cranes and clamshell buckets. At the west endof
the excavation the foundations for the pillars to support the roof of the
newstation and the superstructure tobe built above it were being laid.
Therailroad in June 1905 put up a temporary frame ticket officeand

waiting room with a frontageof 62 feeton Flatbush Avenue and 60 feet
onAtlantic Avenues witha baggage room 30 X 60 adjoining it on the
east. In the last week of May 1905 the old brickpassenger station at
Flatbushand Atlantic Avenue was torn down and on the site the small
wooden temporary station was put up. This was just in time for the
opening of the new electric trainservice on July 26th.
By the third week of September it was estimated that only about

20,000 cv. yds. of earth remained to be excavated and this was being
removedat the rate of 1000 cv. yds. a day. Theroof was being rapidly
laid over these areasalreadyexcavated and the engineersdared to hope
that track laying in the new underground terminal couldbe completed
by Nov. 1 to accommodate theelectric trains. By Octobera largepart of
the roof hadbeen completed and plans were made to rush work on the

above-ground station building or at least the east endwhere a branch
Post Office was to move in by May 1, 1906.

On the midnight of November 4, 1905 an important change took
place in train operation into Flatbush Avenue. Thesteam railroad ser-
vice which had been running all along the surface ofAtlantic Avenue
from the endof the inclineat Bedford Avenue to the temporary station
at sth Avenue (the electric trains using the tunnel)was shut downper-
manently andall serviceout ofFlatbush Avenue turnedover tothe elec-
trics. This involved the abandonment of the old Franklin Avenue or
Bedford Stationwhich had been in use since the very beginning of the
railroad. At the same time the running timeof the electrics was reduced
from 25 minutes to 16 minutes to Jamaica and the name of the trains
changed from the old designationof "suburban" to "locals."

During the first week of November track laying inside the new
depressed station was pushedwith urgent speed. By midnight ofNov-
ember 4 the fourth track into the new station had been laid, and the
first, secondand third tracksweredoubled in length.On the morning of
November 5, 1905 the electric trains began running out of the new
underground stationeven though the permanentbrick stationwas as yet
wholly unbuiltand part of the platforms were unroofedand open to the
sky. This move permitted the abandonmentof all the surface trackson
Atlantic Avenue that hadmade the street impassable for two years.

Wemustat thispoint return to the completion ofTunnel # 1 and the
alteration of the inclineabove it. By theend ofOctober 1904 tunnel # 1
had been completed to Carlton Avenue and the permanent eastbound
track was thenbeing laid as faras Grand Avenue. Five blocks of tunnel
# 1 remained tobe done. Concrete side walls were the first step in the
process, after which the earth would be excavated from between them.
The incline at that time occupied the center ofAtlantic Avenue from
South Oxford Street to Fort Greene Place and because excavations for
the tunnel would undermine the foundations, it was necessary to put in
supports ofheavy yellow pine timberstill permanent supports couldbe
installed on the roof beams of the tunnel. During November 1904 the
south wall of the eight-block stretch was put in and four-fifths of the
northwall; the foundation for the second track in the tunnel was also
completed to Grand Avenue. By mid-January the eight-block tunnel
hadbeen fully roofed.
In March 1905 therailroad beganworkon acompleterebuildingand

realignment of the inclineand elevated connection to the Fifth Avenue
Elevated road. Two factors made this necessary. At the west end the

progressof the excavators on the station sitewas about to result in the
underminingof the supports of the elevated structure. At the east end
the tracks as built led down tostreet level at Carlton Avenue; however,
very soon the surface tracks in Atlantic Avenue were scheduled for
eliminationand a connection with the underground tracks would soon
be needed.

On April 8, 1905 the Long Island R.R. discontinued the Jamaica-
Brooklyn Bridge service, supposedly to permit the rebuilding of the
incline. As it happened, however, the service was never resumed. As
soon as thebridge service shut down, the railroadbuilt a spur from the
tunnel track at Carlton Avenue, continued it onto an incline and con-
nected the trackat 6th Avenue to the surface tracks leading into the
temporary terminus. At the same time the two tracks in the tunnelwere
completed from Grand to CarltonAvenue and fittedwith the third rail.
By the end of July 1905 both tunnel tracks had been extended to Fort
Greene Place and up to the underground station. This final spurt of
work formally brought to an end the changes contemplated by the
Atlantic Avenue Improvement. It took until the end of 1905 to get all
the surface tracksoff AtlanticAvenue and still longertocleanup, pave
and gutter the avenue for vehicular use.
In November 1905 the Long Island R.R. announced that the incline

and Fifth Avenue elevated connection would be rebuilt in a different
location and see differentuse. Theold 1899 structure had an incline that
led up to an elevated structure in the center of Atlantic Avenue at 6th
Avenue and thenran west twoblocks on AtlanticAvenue, curving into
the LIRR yard at sth Avenue. In July 1903 the Long Island R.R. had
acquired the square block between sth and 6th Avenues and the engi-
neers now decided to reroute the incline from its beginning at Carlton
Avenue to an elevated structure that would run parallel to Atlantic
Avenue and just south of it, cross 6th Avenue and continue over the
newly purchased property and thencross Atlantic Avenue at sth Aye.
and so enter the station site. The elevated road would give access to a
second story freightterminal behind the Flatbush Avenuepassenger ter-
minal andwould no longerbe used forpassenger service. Thischange of
plan caused achange in the buildingplans for thenew FlatbushAvenue
station; the original plans for businessoffices atop the station were now
changed to build increased freight facilities.

TheLong Island R.R. strove during 1906 to finish the improvement
of its Atlantic Avenue divisionby devoting every effort to the comple-
tion of the FlatbushAvenue terminal. By February 1906 more thanone-

half theroof of thebig undergroundstation hadbeencompleted and the
upright steel girders were in position for the support of the remaining
half. Verylittle of the steel roofhad been decked over withconcrete as
yet so that passengers entering and leaving trains on the platforms
belowdid so in broad daylight.

The new permanent passenger depot was sited for erection on the
Hanson and Ashland Place side of the block rather than on Atlantic
Avenue like the older structure. The new structure was designed by
Jacobs& Davies, the two engineers who had charge of the East River
tunnels. The P.J. Carlin Construction Company had the contract to
build the structure and Mr. H. F. Saxelbye was the architect. It would
be a brick-and-stone two-story depot witha frontage of 75 feeton Han-
son Place, 62 feet on Ashland Place and 104feet on Flatbush Avenue.
Theexteriorwould be ofrough red brick withbuff brickand buff terra
cotta facings. The main passenger entrancewould be at Hanson & Ash-
landPlace at the angle of the structure and therewould be three other
entrances on Hanson Place at which would be handled all the baggage
and express matter. Therewas to be a passenger entranceand the main
exit on Flatbush Avenue.

On the ground floor was to be located the big waiting room, 73' X
908" which would extendupward to the domeof the roof of the struc-
ture 40 ft. above the floor. Thevarious offices were tobe arranged on a
balconyabove thiswaiting room. On the first floorwere tobe the opera-
tor's rooms, ticket offices and toilets. On the second floor the offices
would be givenover to theoperationof the entire terminal station. The
rooms fronting on the rear of the depot lookingout over the depressed
yard would contain departments for the station master, trainmen, con-
ductors and motormen. The entrances to the underground platforms
would be from a concourse on the east side of the building. A branch
Post Office (Station L) was to be openedon the south side of the build-
ing onFlatbush Avenue the front ofwhich would continuein style and
decoration the main Long Island station.
All during the spring and summer of 1906 work continued on the

new passenger station, interrupted at times by minor strikes. By Sep-
tember much of theexternal frame of the building was completed.

The steel framework for thecommodious expressandbaggage depot
on Hanson Place with its covered driveway was all up. The under-
ground tracks over the whole site were now roofed overwith concrete.
The central and easterly sectionsof this roofwere occupiedby an open
spacious freight delivery yard for package freight. In the center of the

freight yard at the street level was an islandplatform 300 ft. longand
150 ft. wide, the floor ofwhich was fiveor six feetabove the level of the
surrounding roadways and plaza for the use of terms and from which
the packages of goods would be unloaded into wagons. This platform
and freightyard was reachedby ample drivewaysand entrances on all
sides of the station, two from Flatbush Avenue, one from Ft. Greene
Place andanother from Hanson PI. The entire platform and driveway
was covered with a substantial roof.
Above the platform on the third floor there weresix tracksand three

covered platforms wheregoodscouldbe loaded and unloaded. Packages
unloaded from freight cars couldbe lowered by means ofnine electric
elevators to the big island platformat street level.
In the underground station seven tracks of varying length offered

space forpassenger trainsand seven muchshorter tracks were reserved
for freight and express service. Space was left fora physical connection
with the IRTsubway when it shouldcome but by May 1908 when the
subwayopened, the Long Island R.R. was no longer interested in inter-
line service and the trackconnection was never installed. The IRTlater
used part of the space for a siding of its own.
By December 1906 the new terminal wasrapidly approaching com-

pletion. The outside walls and terra cotta trim were finishedand the
roof was on and muchof the interiorworkdone. During January 1907
the plumbers, electricians andplasterers weredue to follow them.
On April 1, 1907 the new Flatbush Avenue passenger station was

opened to public use at noon. Therewere no special or formal ceremo-
nies attendant on the opening. The doors were thrown open, two of the
four ticket booths were ready for business and the information booth
began its work. The AtlanticAvenue Improvement was finishedat last,
eleven yearsafter the first steps in 1896.

Terminal Expansion at Long Island City & Jamaica


THELong Island City station with its large depotbuilding andterminal yard was not only the biggest on the railroad but alsothe most important. It was a disaster of major proportions,
therefore, when the great depot took fire on the night ofDec. 18, 1902.
The ticket offices, waitingroom, baggage and telegraph rooms occupied
the ground floor and the companyoffices the second floor. The fire start-
ed in the telegraph offices about 8:15 P.M. andmovedvia a staircase to
the second floor gallerywhich soon becamea mass of flames. The ten-
yearold depotbuilding,built of wood from thesecond floorup, took fire
almost in the twinkling of an eye. The fire swept over the building so
quickly that the telegraph operators on the second floor were trapped
andhad to leapout ofwindows framedin fire. The doormandiscovered
the flames issuing from the telegraph office andhe then ran all over the
building giving the alarm. Forty passengers in the waiting room made a
mad dash for the doors. The clerks in the second floor offices did not
move fast enoughand had to jump outofwindows. In tenminutes' time
the roof of the buildinghad fallen in and in another 30 mins. the whole
stationwas in ruins. The tallclock tower was ofwood and this fellwith-
in 15 mins. after the fire started. About 50 cars were standing in the
yard near the depot, but every engine in the yard was pressed into ser-
vice, and all the cars were rescued. Two baggage cars caught fire and
were dragged blazing from the depot but were partially saved.

Under Pres. Baldwin's energetic direction the railroad recovered
with remarkable speed. By 3:52 A.M. when the regular morning train
servicestarted, the first trainleft the depoton time. A largeforce ofmen
was put to work at daylight clearing away the ruins and the railroad
immediately filed with the Dept. ofBuildings for a new structure 50 X
100on the siteof the burned building. Meanwhile, the railroad officials
found temporary quarters in six large rooms in thebrick buildingof the
New York & Queens County Ry Co., the trolley company across the
street. Railroad tickets were sold to the generalpublic in the ferryhouse.

Trains were run inand outof the stationas usual andby noon the ruins
had been so far cleared away as to admit of trains running to within a
few feet of the burned building.
As it turned out, the rebuilding of the destroyed stationserved as the

catalyst for a whole series of improvements. The contract for a new
depot was let as soon as possible to avoid a delay in the structuraliron
deliveries. The new depotwas designed to resemble closely the old one.
Thehalf of the structure facing onBorden Aye. would be twostories in
height as before the fire, the waiting room to the southwith entrances
facing Front Street. Theprincipal andperhapsonlychange was areduc-
tion in thenumber of offices on the second floor. Theauditor's office, the
offices of the general passengeragent and the general freightagent were
all permanently relocated in the Pennsylvania Railroad buildingat sth
Aye. and 29th St. Manhattan. The waiting room was to be of the same
height and dimensions as before and with all the usual facilities.

Workon the newstationbegan on Jan. 24, 1903. By the endof April
the main floor in the stationwas about finished andmuchof the plaster
work done; it was scheduled to open in two weeks. The offices on the
second floor were just about ready. To the great regret of the traveling
public the Long Island Rail Road did not replace the big four-sided
clock thatformerlycrowned the tower of theold building. For adecade
businessmenand commuters had come to rely on the great clock and its
destructionleft travelers, boatmen, factoryhandsandpedestrianswitha
deep sense of loss. Because of the heavy pressure of the race-track
crowds to theMetropolitan Track in Jamaica,which openedApril 15th,
the new depotwas thrown open informally on April 27thwhile a lot of
finishing work was still being done to the interior. Replacement iron
sheds were put upbetween the station and the platforms.

On June 11, 1903 the various officers of the railroad, holedup in the
trolley company's offices,movedback into the newdepotbuilding. The
completed building was a plain brickaffair with the first story devoted
to waiting room, ticket offices and baggage rooms. The main offices on
the second floor were grouped about a well 30 X 50 over which there
was a dome, furnishing light to the wholeinterior. The main stairway to
the second floor was located on the north side as in the old depot; a spi-
ral stairway led up from the sidewalk facing the train shed.

The private and main offices of Supt. Potter occupied the northwest
corner of the building, and the private and main offices of the superin-
tendent of transportation the northeast corner. The ticket receiver's

office waslocated between these two. The car record and traindispatch-
er's offices were on the east side of the rotunda and the trainmaster's
office in the southeast corner. Thereal estate offices were in the south-
west comerand theoffices of thepurchasing agent, chemist and supt. of
telegraph on the west side of the building. The electrical equipment of
the train dispatcher's officeand the carrecord office was farsuperior to
that in the old depot. The newswitchboard had 75 to80 wires connect-
ing with every station on theroad and a daily report was made from the
various depotsof the location of every car on the line.

Theoffices of the general passenger agent, general freightagent and
the auditor never returned to Long Island City; they remainedat 263
Fifth Avenue in the Perm Railroad building, while the offices ofPres.
Baldwin and ChiefCounsel Reilly stayed at 128 Broadway.

While all this change was going on at the depot, the decision had
been taken toexpand the cramped Long Island City passenger yard by
buying out the properties on the south side of the tracks. Negotiations
went on very quietly in the spring of 1903 with the owners of the abut-
ting parcels and the plots acquiredoneby one until the railroad owned
nearly every parcel down to Flushing Street (54 Aye.). With the addi-
tion of this land, the Long IslandCity yardwas almost doubled in size,
relieving thecongestion that had bothered the officialsof the system for
years. With the steady expansion of passenger traffic every year, the
need for more space was all the more acute. The buildings in the area
were all substantial establishments: two large lumber companies, (D. S.
Jones and Yellow Pine), a planing mill (Doncaster), a varnish factory
(Mayer &Lowenstein), anda big chemical works (Feuchtwanger). The
purchase of these sizeable establishments, none of whom wished to
move without substantial inducement, cost the company several hun-
dred thousand dollars, but the enlarged railroad yard that resulted from
clearing away theseproperties allowed the Long Island Rail Road to
increase its terminal tracks from 16 to 21 plus 3 for freight service,
raised the passenger car capacity from 108 to 216, and in rush times,
permitted that number tobe increased to 250.By July 15, 1903 all these
buildings had been torn down. TheMundus Hotel, abrick building on
the corner of Vernon Avenueand 54thStreet, proved a holdout.
During October a force of men wascutting down theland to make it

level with the passenger yard. Carloads of ties and new steelrails were
being delivered and eight additional tracks prepared. The platform
behind the depotwas extended south to thesenew tracks andplatforms
were built between them as elsewhere in the yard.

In these same October days of 1903 the railroad began to take
thought toextendand enlarge the depotbulding. The ideawas to extend
it 100 ft. south along SecondSt., bringing it close to 54thAvenue. The
whole building was to be three stories throughout and the additional
office space gained wouldbe given over to those departmentsof the ser-
vice now housed in various smallbuildings in different parts of the pas-
senger yard. All thosestructures could then be torndown and theyard
would thenhave muchadditional room as aresult.

One of the greatest gains at this timebesides additional yard space
was permission to layadditional outlet tracksacross Vernon Avenue. In
the late 1880's and 90's everyattempt to do thishad met the determined
resistance of Long Island City's redoubtable Mayor Patrick Gleason.
Now that Long Island City waspart of the greater City ofNew York,
permission came easier. The entrance to the passenger yard in 1903,
with only four passenger tracks and two freight tracks, was in every
sense choked. Four additional tracks were laid in November 1903 to
permit two or more trains to arrive together or depart together, an
impossibility before.

On Jan. 7, 1904 the Long Island Rail Road recorded in the County
clerk's office the deeds for the property of the Export Lumber Compa-
ny, L. Feuchtwanger, and Mayer& Lowenstein along Second Street &
54th Avenue.

During January 1904 the southward 100 foot extension of the depot
building was progressing; the first floor windows and door frameswere
installed and the brick wall was rising rapidly. Across the street the
frame for the new express shed was upand the roof was going on. The
new extension exactly matched the rest of the station and made the
Long Island City depotone of the largestbuildings onall Long Island.
All the new trackshad just aboutbeen laid in the passengeryard andas
soon as the smaller office staffs moved into the new station, their struc-
tures would be torn down and still more tracks laid in time for the
spring and summer rush.

The steel frame for the new shed of the Long Island Express Co.
adjoining the stationwas now finishedand the side plates of galvanized
iron put in position. The newshedwas two storieshigh forhalf its depth
and the second floor fittedup as offices for the superintendentand other
officials. Theold shed, whichhad to be razed to makeway for theFront
Street tunnel shaft, was torn down as soon as its replacement opened.
Three tracks ran into the street floor of the new building so that cars
could be quickly loaded and unloaded inside.By the endofMarch 1904

all the new tracks had been laid and the small buildings demolished.
Four new umbrella sheds went up along the eight new tracks during
April 1904.
All during this time, Mundus' Hotel at the corner of Vernon& 54th

Ayes. persisted in its refusal to sell to the railroad. The hotel operator
refused $20,000 and theowners $50,000. The railroad finally was forced
to turn to condemnationproceedings.
In December 1904 the railroadundertook the unusual taskofrecon-

structing all the umbrella sheds on the train platforms. The sloping
roofs of the sheds had pouredwater down the backs of the necks of pas-
sengers in badweatherandcomplaints hadresulted. Thenew shedsnow
sported roofs thatsloped inwardtoward thecenter insteadof downward
at each side.

The final improvementsat the Long Island City terminal came two
years later in 1906. When the building on Borden Avenue had been
erected in 1903,no provision hadbeen made foradditionalroom for the
executiveoffices of the company. By 1906 space had become so scarce
that thecompany decided toput a second story on theaddition thatwas
only one story high. Work began immediately on the second story and
was finished in mid-June 1906. The officecapacity of the building was
doubled. The extension was 126X 75 and the open well in the centerof
the building enlarged to 56X 17with greatsky lightsoverhead. General
Superintendent McCrae had two rooms overlooking the platforms and
yards 17 1/2 X 22 and 30 X 22. Superintendent of Transportation
Hartensteinhad tworooms 11 1/2X22and 27 1/2X22. The paymas-
terhad one large room tohimself. On the west side overlooking the fer-
ries Trainmaster Jarvis had two rooms and Electrical Superintendent
Wells twomore and Real Estate Agent Howarth twoothers. President
Peters took forhimself the whole north side of the building. In its final
reconstruction the great Long Island City depot nowextended440 feet
on Front Street from Borden Avenue to 54th Avenue and 400 feet of
this was now two stories high.
Next to Long Island City, Jamaica was the second most important

station on the system. The fact that it was the junction of the Atlantic
Branch, the Montauk Division and the Main Line plus the site of the
main shops and roundhouse insured its importance. The Long Island
Rail Road during the 90's had made extensive land purchases from
Morris Park on the west (130thSt.) to SutphinBlvd. on the east so that
by 1900, the JamaicaYardwas 26 tracks wide. Between Sutphin Blvd.
and Jamaica Station the yard narrowed down to 12 tracks (see Vol. VI,

pp. 125-27), however, just east of Jamaica Station, at 159th St. (old
Prospect St.) the right-of-waynarrowed down to two tracks only. The
station area was constricted enough as it was for the meetingof trains
fromsomany divisions,but the dispatchingof trains for the MainLine,
Montauk,Wading RiverandOyster Bay branchesover only two tracks
hadbecomealmost intolerable. The railroad hadalso in view the greatly
increased traffic to follow the completion of the Atlantic Avenue
Improvementandparticularly, the coming of the IRT subway to Atlan-
tic Avenue and the possible running of Long Island Rail Road trains
into downtown New York. Electricity would greatly speed up the
schedules already existing, but increased patronage could well make it
necessary todispatch trains under as little as 40 to60 seconds headway.
Jamaica Station, already inadequate, would then become impossible.
Therailroad, in 1901, decidedto delay no longerin putting an end to

thiscondition by purchasing enough land to widen the right-of-wayby
the width of four tracks throughout Jamaica village. In July 1901 the
railroad announced publicly its intention to enlarge its right-of-way
along the south side ofJamaicafrom 159th Street eastward through the
village to Rockaway Junction (later Hillside) and to establish a yard
beyond that point extending as faras Hollis station. In September the
railroadapplied to the courts for the right tobegin condemnation pro-
ceedings. Over thewinterof 1901-1902 the railroad wasable toacquire
noless than33 parcels of land over the one-miledistance. Each ofthese
parcels soacquired was from45 to55 feetwideand variedin size from a
25 ft. city lot to stripsone and even twoblocks long. On the average the
railroadhad topayanywhere from $1000 to$4000 for the smaller lots.
A fewparcels, however, weremorecostly. JohnM. Crane, president of
the Shoe& LeatherBank, owned the wholeblock from 160th Street to
UnionHallStreet, a sizeableplot 400X 300 ft.and the railroadbought
it out complete including his mansion for $20,000. The mansion, a
handsomeand substantialdwelling 38 X 38 and three stories high, was
divided into offices and usedpartly for the engineering department and
partly formaintenance ofway. A two-story wing, 25 X 60, wasbuilt to
thenorth of it and therewas aconnecting wing22 X 30, the latter con-
taining a fireproofvaultused for the preservation of records. The engi-
neering department,which hadbeen ousted from its building onSecond
Street in Long Island Citybecause of the tunnels and yard expansion,
was moved into the mansion. Another largeparcel was thatof JohnR.
Carpenterwho owned an extensive lumber yard two blocks long from
New York Avenue to 166th Street. For this the railroad paid $37,500.

Ticket offices at Flatbush Avenue station in May 1908. ("Eagle") (Top)
The much-disputed IRT planned connection on May 1, 1908

("Eagle") (Bottom)

so that cars and trucks would have less ofa climbin crossing the rail-
road. It was planned to have a 16 ft. headway between the floor of the
bridges and the tracks below. On Nov. 18, 1902 the contract for build-
ing the threenewsteel bridgeswas awarded to the Owego Bridge Com-
pany with the strict provision that the work had to be completed by
May 1, 1903.
In February 1903 a big steam shovel was put to workcutting down

the banks onboth sides of theroadbed. As soon as thiswas finished, the
track layerscould come in and lay the fournew tracks with 100lb. rail.
The earthremoved was cartedout to Barnum's Island andused to fill in
between East Rockaway andLong Beach.

By April all the earth had been cut awayand the roadbed graded.
The problemnow was to takedown theold bridges, putupa temporary
trestle for the trolley on 160thStreet, tear out the old bridgeabutments
and buildwider new ones.
A few other changes were made at the same time. Theold turntable

at 159th Street waspulled outand moveda block east and opposite the
Crane Mansion engineeringbuilding. More important was a change in
the station platforms. With four new tracks available, it now became
possible torearrange theplatforms to fourisland platformsand two out-
er platforms. Instead ofhaving all the trains come in at two or three
platforms as had been necessary over the years, it now became possible
to separate the different divisions and assign platforms toeach as fol-

North platform with stationbuilding
Main Line westbound track
Island platform
Rapid Transit westbound track
Island platform
Montauk Div, westbound track
Main Line eastbound track
Island platform
Rapid Transit eastbound track
Wide Island platform with station building
Montauk Div. eastbound track
Two dead-end tracks

To link up all these platforms, the railroad for the first time put in an
underground passage leading fromTwombly Place on the north to Bea-
ver Street on thesouth. The entrance to the tunnelon the northwas at a

point just west of the Jamaica Station, where the passengersdescended
by a flight of stone steps to the floor of the tunnel, and passed under-
neathall the tracks. The passage was seven feet high and six feetwide
and over 200 ft. long. The brick side walls of the tunnelwere three feet
thickat the base and were drawn in by threesuccessive four-inch steps
toa thickness of two feet at the top, the roof being formed of 60 lb. iron
rails. This arrangement did away with the former dangerous practiceof
passengers walking across the tracks or walking through trains. To
insure that all passengers would buy tickets aheadof time, a turnstile
was built into the Twombly Place entrance preventing people from
entering the underground passagedirectly, but permittingegress.
In mid-April 1903 the 159th Street bridgewas lowered onto its new

foundations and workmen werebusy laying the floor of the roadway
and sidewalks. The UnionHallStreet bridgewas loweredonto its foun-
dations April 27th. The old 160th Streetbridge, because of the trolley
trackon it, was still in service but a temporarybridge justwest of it was
currentlybeing built and scheduled tobe in use onMay 4th. The three
newbridges weredescribed, in the language ofan engineer, as pin-con-
nected,Pettit truss type, 44 ft. wide, withhogback truss frames.
By May 15th, 1903 the newbridgeat 160thStreet was nearly finished

andready for installation and the workmenwerebusy tearingaway the
abutments of the old one.Meanwhile, the trolley cars of theLong Island
Electric Railway were running over a temporary wooden trestle-work
structure. All the bridges were due for completion and the six new
tracks (four passenger and twofreight) were tobe in use by May 27th,
the date the summer timetablewent into effect. Thelast days justbefore
the deadline were hectic:

300 men are at work today changing the tracks through the
Jamaica yard of the Long Island Rail Road., changing the sta-
tion sites and building new platforms and the place looks as
though it hadbeen struckby a cyclone. The jobhad to be done
quickly and all superfluous beams, joists, planking, old roofs
and othermaterial had to be thrown up in heaps in every direc-
tion until time can be taken to properly dispose of the stuff.
Scores of men are at work in one place drivingdownbig locust
posts for foundations for platforms, other gangs are at work

laying new tracks and shiftingold ones, masons are still work-
ingat foundationsand undergroundpassagewaysand altogeth-
er the scene is a bewildering one to thehundredsof idle onlook-
ersand to all but theofficials, whowill soon bring orderout of
the chaos.

All in all, the Long Island Rail Road spent $200,000 in the Jamaica
improvement for purchase of land, grading, widening cuts, building
threesteel bridges with heavy abutments, installing a retaining wall on
the north side andchanging the stationplatforms. The final touchcame
in April 1904 when the railroad added glass enclosures for the various
platforms in accordance with Perm. Railroad custom.

Interestingly, the Long Island Rail Road foresaw even at this time
that the Jamaica improvement was at best a temporary stopgap:

The change tobe made in the Jamaica yard will be but tempo-
rary andwill be in the nature of trial plans with aview to help-
ingsolve the problemofpermanent plans for thisstationwhich
will eventuallybe the central part of theLong IslandRail Road
system. While the switching and platform arrangements have
provensatisfactory, plans will be prepared for a suitable perma-
nent stationat Jamaicaand undoubtedlya greatbrick structure
will replace both of the present frame structures for east and
west bound is recognized that this station besides
being the terminal of the system ofsteam lines, will also be the
terminal of the Pennsylvania-Long Island tunnel system and
the Rapid Transit (IRT) tunnel. In view of this it is said that
the largely increased facilities being provided at the point will
be too small to provide for the enormous future traffic. Over
800 trains daily pass both ways through this station but once
the tunnel and the Atlantic Avenue Improvement and the
InterboroughRapid Transit are finished, the number will be
four times greater.

Electrification: The Physical Installations

THE whole Pennsylvania Tunnel project was capable ofrealization only on the basis of train operation by electricity;steam in a six-mile tunnel was inconceivable. As soon as the
Pennsylvania Railroad began work on its tunnels, therefore, it also
began workon power facilities. Before doing anything the Pennsylvania
Railroad had to come toa decision upon the characterofthe equipment
and the characteristics of the electrical apparatus. Because it seemed
possible in 1902 that the Pennsylvania tunnel trainsmight some day
connect with thelines ofneighboringcompanies including theBrooklyn
Rapid Transit Company, the InterboroughRapid Transit Company as
well as the Long Island Rail Road, the directors considered that it
would be wise to harmonize Pennsylvania Railroad trains and power
installations with those of the existing subway, surface and elevated
lines. It was decided thereforeto adopt for the car equipmenta typeand
dimension ofcar whichwould permit, if necessary, ofthrough operation
over connecting lines. It was also decided toadopta systemof electrical
distribution which was standard onconnecting lines, namely, third-rail
contact and direct current at 600 volts for the propulsion current and
alternating current transmission at 11,000 volts for conversionat sub-
In furtherance of thisdecision the Pennsylvania engineershad come

to the conclusion that two large power houses, one in Long IslandCity
and alater one inJersey City, (never built) would adequately power the
New York terminal operations and also the city and suburban opera-
tions of the Long Island Rail Road. Since all power generation at the
turn of thecentury dependedoncoal, it would be necessary to finda site
on or close to the water so that coal could be delivered cheaply and
directly bybarges. In Long Island City such a site was not too difficult
to find since the Long Island Rail Road already occupied more or less
fully five blocks of waterfront for its main passenger terminal, freight
yards, express terminals and ferry.

The PennsylvaniaRailroadselected thesquare blockbounded by 2nd
St., sth Street, 50th Avenue & 51st Avenue, a plot 200X500, as the site
for the big power house and engaged Westinghouse, Church, Kerr &
Co. to draw up the plan (February 1903). TheLong Island Rail Road
formally leased to the Pennsylvania Railroad and the New York &
Long Island RailRoad, the corporation formed tobuild the tunnel, the
power house site for a period of 99 yearsand for an annual rental of
$24,000 a year. The Long Island also leaseda plot on the west side of
2ndStreet, 37X 24 opposite the power house,and theland underwater
from the old bulkhead line 315 feet west of old First Street and
extendingout to the United States bulkhead line; also the right to build
and maintain on the Long Island Rail Road's property west of 2nd
Street an elevated tramway supported on steel towers for the convey-
ance of coal and ashesabout 500 feet from the waterfront to the power
house;also tobuild two big flumes througha 17 foot strip from the river
to the power house. The Pennsylvania Railroad undertook to pay all
taxesand assessments. A few old buildings occupied the power plant
siteon the river side. The Pennsylvania Railroadengineers drove a few
piles into the site in August 1903 to ascertain thecharacter of the earth
and the foundations andhow farinland the river water came in. All the
landhere was "madeland" and any structure would requirepile sup-
port. The dimensions of the power house would be 200X 500 and 100
ormore feet in height.

On Nov. 8, 1903 a large force of men and teams began the workof
excavating the Front Street end of the block. During December hun-
dreds ofpiles weredriven and during January 1904, thework force was
engaged in cutting offthe tops so that all the piles would be even. The
railroad then constructed a great wooden-frame inclined ramp to pour
concrete from the east end of the block into the hole at the west end.
The purposeofpouring the concrete was to forma heavybed; when set,
the concrete would fastenitself tightly around the head of eachpile and
so form a solid foundation for the immense weight ofbrick, stone and
steel to be rearedupon it. Since the site was only 200 feetdistant from
the East River, piles andconcrete were thought the surest way to secure
a solid foundation.

On March5, 1904 the contractor finished the work of driving 9113
piles using nine hugepile drivers todo the job. About800 yards of con-
crete were going in daily, consuming 12,000bags ofcement a week. By
means of the inclinedplane broken stone and sand were hauled up to a
30 foot height and dumped directly over the concrete mixing machine.

By theendofMarch, 15,000cubic yardsofconcrete hadbeenpoured
in depths ranging from 66" toB'6". At the western end were the con-
crete bases for two ofthe steel smokestacks, andhalfway to the eastern
endwere thebases for two more. These bases were two feet higher than
theconcrete floor about them.Near the outer edgeof the circularbases
were embedded20 largebolts of steel three inches in diameterand 11'6"
in length.The nuts on the topof the bolts were to hold inplace the bases
of the steel stacks, each 23 feet in diameterat the bottom, 17 feet at the
top and 275 feet in height. At the far west end of the excavation were
two submarine tubeseach 10 feet in diameter, one over theother. These
tubesextended from the east endof the power house to the East River.
Salt water flowed naturallyinto thelower tubeand by means ofpumps
was raised towhereit would be used tocondense steam. Theuppertube
was for carrying the waste waterback into the river.

Six weeks later, by the endof May 1904, the water tubes had been
completed, the four smokestacks were halfway up, and the granite
blocks comprising the outer walls were being sited. Three engine beds
wereunderway to support the electricgenerators. Thesebeds werebuilt
up from the floor of the power house and were of solid brick. The
engines were upon the second floor, 16 feetabove. For the first time in
power house construction turbine engines were installed exclusively.
When theboilerswere installed, the first tierwas upon the second floor
and the second tier was 36 ft. above that. The purpose of this arrange-
ment was to give plenty of room for the stoking system. The ground
floor was left entirely free for the pipes, ducts, wires and other items.
Each duct was made of fire-hardenedclay similar to drain pipes. Each
duct wasabout five inches in diameter, more nearly square than round.
Trenches leading from the power house contained a large number of
these ducts through which wireswere run.

Beginning inMay 1904 workwasalso begun on the sub-stations that
would convert the high-tension power fromLong Island City. Sub-sta-
tions were scheduled to be built at Woodhaven Junction, East New
York andHammels. It was planned to build two others later at Rocka-
way Park and Flatbush Avenue.

So extraordinarilyrapid was the constructionof the powerhouse by
the endof October 1904 thata delegation ofBritons from the Iron &
Steel Institute in London came toAmerica expressly to view the marvel.
In eight months five millionpounds of structuralsteel hadbeen erected
for the skeleton framework, four mammoth smokestacks 275 feet high
had been putup, and the brick walls hadbeencompleted with4,500,000

bricks laid. To accomplish this, the bricklayers had averaged 1500
bricks per man per day! The work of installing the steam engines and
dynamos was justbeginning. The installation ofthe boilerswas proceed-
ing rapidly. It was hoped to have three units of the plan ready by the
spring of 1905 to furnish all the electric current for the Rockaway and
Atlantic AvenueDivisions. Eachunit would consist ofa Westinghouse-
Parsons turbine engine and a dynamo; each unit would generate 5500
KW or about 7500 HP. Theseengines and generatorswereat that time
the largest ever built and it was expected thatone or more of the units
could be started up in less than twomonths. An emergency stand-pipe,
forty feet in diameter and eighty feethigh, was erected on the north side
ofBorden Avenueand justeast of theNorth Shore Division tracks. This
structure too was given a foundation of 300 piles to sustain the enor-
mous weight of 800,000 gals, of waterplus the ironshell.

By Dec. 15, 1904 the 32 boilerson the first floor, paired off into 16
batteries, were now completed andready for the fires. Thesamenumber
ofbatteries was being constructedon the second floorso that when the
second boiler room wasready, there wouldbe 64 largewater-tube boil-
ers to furnish steam fordriving the giant turbine engines.Only one gen-
erator had been installed so far and workmen were busy winding the
armature; theengineers expected thatit would take severalmen 60 days
working 24 hrs. a day to finish winding one of them. On Dec. 21, the
first turbine engine was testedand everything worked satisfactorily.

Tobring in the coal a tower 190 ft. high was erected at the foot of
51st Avenue. From this tower to the power house severalhundred feet
away ran an elevated tramway 104feet above the ground. A coalcon-
veyorwith buckets transported the coal froma barge to the bunkers just
beneath the roof of the boilerhouse. From the bunkers the coalwas fed
through chutes directly to the furnaces, eliminating most stoking.

On Jan. 3, 1905 a severe winter windstorm lifted one of the huge
smokestack covers, an oaken, zinc-lined lid about 18 feet in diameter
and weighing several hundred pounds, and deposited it on the tops of
two passenger cars on tracks 4 and 5 so lightly that the car roofs were
not damaged. During May 1905 the steel towers for the elevated tram-
way carrying coal in and ashes out of thepower plant werecompleted.
By July 1905 the great power plant was completed andpreparations

were made to run the first trains. The completed plant had a capacity
close to 50,000KW; when the tunnels had been completed, the power
plant was scheduled tobe enlarged to twice thatcapacity. In 1905only
threeof the big Westinghouse-Parsonsunitshad been set up, enough to

power the LIRR. These consisted ofa 7500 HP turbine. Each turbine
could be increased from its 7500HP rating to 12,000 or 15,000HP if
need be. The turbines were known as three-stage, single-flow turbines,
i.e. the thousands of tiny blades upon which the steam impinges were
arranged in threesets, so that therewere three stages of expansion of
steam through the blades. The building was constructed to hold six of
these units and two 4000 HP turbines in addition, making a total of
53,000 HP capacity, but in 1905 only three of the turbines had been
installed, yielding a normal capacity of 22,500 HP. Each turbine was
connected with a 5000 KW generator of the revolving field type. The
stationary part of the generator, a three-phase 12,000 volt alternator,
was so largeand heavy that it had to beassembled at the powerhouse as
it could not be transported in its complete form.
A feature of the installation was re-evaporation of the condensed

steam in the boilers. The great surface condensers each attached to a
turbine, were the largest known. Each contained 5200 tubesan inch in
diameter and 15 feet long. Each condenser used about 7000 gallons of
waterperminute tocool the exhauststeam, thewaterbeing drawn from
the East River through the condensers by a centrifugal pump, subse-
quently returning to the river through another flume. Each generating
unit weighed 250 tons.

The most interestingpart of the plant was the great boiler room with
its doubletier of thirty-two520 HPboilers with furnaces fed fromauto-
matic stokers from an overhead coal bunker storing 7000 tons. There
was space for 16moreboilers of the samesize. Coal wasbrought to the
bunkers froma pier 500 feetaway overa steel trestle 110 feet above the
street. It was scooped out of the barge by a clam-shell bucketholding
3000 lbs. operated on a hoist. Then, by a mechanical process, the coal
was dumped into a hopper 155 feet in the air, passed through acrusher
andweighing machine and fed into steel cars holding three tons each
and carried on a cable railway over a trestleand dumped in the proper
place in thebunkerby means ofan automatic tripping device. Only two
men were required to workall thiselaboratemachinery and to handle
500 tons ofcoal a day, the normalcapacity of the station. Ash disposal
wasalso provided for. The nearest tower to the power house was con-
structed so as to receive ashes from beneath the boilerswhich would be
delivered automatically from the building to ash hoppers where Long
Island Rail Road cars stood ready toreceive them.

On thenorth side ofthe great engine room were fourgalleries the full
length of the building. These were occupied partly by the electrical

apparatus such as the electricalswitchboard and other devicesnecessary
for the operation of the plant andcontrolling the current which passed
through the great cables in the underground conduitsystem.
The constructionon the electrical distribution system progressed as

quickly as did the workon the power house. The current from the pow-
er house was carried through conductors and switches to parallel bus
bars and from these throughswitches and groupbusses to the outgoing
11,000 volt cables. Each ofthe cableswas threeinches in diameterand
running through thesewere three copperwires eacha half inch in diam-
eter and perfectly insulated. Each of the circuits consisted of threecop-
per conductors of250,000 circular mills; on the trunk line were fivecir-
cuits or 15 cables. Each cablewas carriedin conduits through the built-
up sections ofLong Island City as far as the railroad yards at Dutch
Kills. Theseducts were laid during the summer of 1904. Unfortunately,
there was a low-lyingswampyarea at Archand Crane Streetsoff Jack-
son Avenue several acres in extent and filled withponds of still water.
No soonerwere the ducts built than theengineers discovered that they
were frequently flooded,especially after heavy rains, short-circuitingthe
high tensioncables. Gangs ofworkmen had to be put to work digging a
700 ft. drain and installing automatic pumps todrain the waters.
From DutchKills the electric cableswerebroughtoverhead and car-

ried on speciallydesigned lattice steelpolesroughly 150 feet apart. Each
pole was of wrought iron, averaging 45 feet in height. All during the
summer of 1904 workmenhad been busy preparing the concrete pedes-
tals for these towers. So strongwere these poles that a hurricane could
notharm them and they were designed to withstand the heaviest wind
pressure when the cables were loaded with sleet. The cross trees on
them were almost as big as railroad ties. The more than 10,000 glass
insulators used were tested at 40,000 volts for leakage. Work on the
erection of the towers themselves began on Jan. 31, 1905. By the endof
March the work of drawing the heavy feed wires through the mile or
more of subway ducts in Long Island Cityand of stringing them on the
steel uprights that were to carry them to Woodhaven, Jamaica and
Rockaway wasalmost completed and in April the cables were strung on
the poles across JamaicaBay. Thepole line followed the railroad track
to RegoPark fromwhich it struck across country rejoining theRocka-
way line at Glendale Junctionand thenon to Woodhaven Junction.At
thispoint the linebranched off east, south andwest to the various sub-
stations. There were 10 miles in all of the steel pole line, 25 miles of
wooden pole line and 11 miles where the cable was carried in ducts

below the street as was also the cable along Atlantic Avenue and in
Long Island City from the power house to Dutch Kills. Wherever the
transmission crossed the telegraph or telephone wires, the latter were
ledunderneath the high tensionwires, the very substantial characterof
the heavy electric cablesprecluding theirbreakingand fallingacross the
telegraph wires. A further precaution was taken by having the poles
placed closer togetherat such points.Lightning wasguarded againstby
lightning arresters in all the sub-stations. The sight of the bare feed
wires and towers along the right ofway through Elmhurst and Wood-
haven created uneasiness among the more faint-hearted of the citizens
of the populated areas ofQueens that the railroad was endangering life
byrunningbare overheadfeed wires. The railroadassured everyone that
its lines were strung in theverybest manner known to scienceandwere
guarded in every way that scienceand ingenuitycould devise. The most
difficult construction in connection with the pole line was along the
four-mile trestle overJamaica Bay. Here the poles used were 85 ft. long.
It was necessary onaccount of the summer tide movementsand winter
ice to sink these poles 15 or 20 ft. into the bay bottom and for this,
heavy water jetting machinery had to be carried out on the trestle.
Moreover, each polehad to be creosoted from top to butt against the
action of the teredoor shipworm whichcould eat throughan unprotect-
ed pole in a year.

All during the summer of 1904 workwas pushed on the construction
of the sub-stations. Thesewere five in numberand were located as fol-

#1 Atlantic Avenue midway between Grand Avenue and Classon

#2 East New York, southwest corner of Atlantic & Snediker Ave-

#3 Woodhaven Junction, southwest quadrant of the junction
#4 Rockaway Junction (Hillside), south side ofright ofway on the

lineof 172nd Street
#5 Hammels, behind the Vat thestation
As far as possible, sub-stations were located at junctionpoints since it
seemed more practical to locate them at points where heavy loads
occurred. The electrical equipments in each—(transformers,
switches,)— were set up in February 1905. The three-phase alternating
current sent out fromLong Island City at a pressureof 11,000voltswas
reduced in the sub-stations to the nominal 650 volts.

The Woodhaven Junction sub-station was the largest of all—72 X
85, being provided with an initial equipment of three 1500 KW rotary
converters andnine static transformers of 550 KW capacity. Ultimate-
ly, the station was to be equipped with six 1500 KW rotary converters
with a correspondingincrease in the number of static transformers.

The Grand Avenue sub-station had an initial equipment of three
1000 KW rotary converters and nine static transformers of 375 KW
capacity. The ultimate capacity was to include four 1500 KW rotary
converters witha corresponding increase in transformer capacity.

The East NewYork sub-station was furnished withan equipment of
three 1000 KW rotary converters with nine 375 KW transformers,
while the ultimate equipment was to consist of four 1500 KW rotary
converters and the corresponding number of transformers.

The Hillside sub-stationhad two 1000KW rotary converters and six
static transformersof 375 KW capacity, with expectationsof upgrading
to four 1500 KW converters.

The sub-station at Hammels was somewhat different in construction
and capacity from the others. First ofall, the site forit had tobe creat-
ed. Therailroad filledin several acres of saltmarsh behind the Hammels
station, using dirt and stones from the Atlantic Avenue Improvement.
This work went on during the autumn monthsof 1904. Then, because
the sub-soil wasnothing butbeach sand, the engineersdrove 840 spruce
piles with 8" tips& 10" butts between 25 and 30 feet longbywater-jet-
ting into the coarse quicksand to secure a solid foundationfor the heavy
machinery. On the piles a doubletimberplatformwasbuilt and thiswas
overlaid by aconcrete bed in some places 12 feet thick. The sub-station
building was brick and 69 X 85, with an extension 62 X 100. $40,000
was expended on thisone sub-station. The building was equippedwith
two 1000KW rotary converters and six 375 KW transformers. Like the
others thiswas planned to contain ultimately six 1500 KW rotary con-

The most unusual feature of the Hammels sub-station was a large
storagebattery room 62 X 100. Therewereabout 300 tanks capableof
furnishing 3200 amperes rating and 9600 amperes momentary dis-
charge. The reason for thisinstallation was three-fold. For one thing the
Hammels sub-stationwas farthest from the power house and the trans-
missionlinewas exposed toan unusual extent,being carried over Jamai-
caBay for four miles. In addition, the Long Island Rail Road operated
on the Rockawaypeninsula a trolley line, the Ocean ElectricRailway,

and in the event ofpower failureat Long Island City, the battery instal-
lations alone could power the trolley lineuntil repairs weremade. The
batterypile could also boost the third rail duringperiodsof exceptional
demand. Finally, the loadat Hammels was very light during the winter,
and the very largebatterycapacity—it was then the largestin the world
in use forelectric railway work— made it practicable toshut down the
rotary equipment formuchof the timeduring the winter months. If the
power at Long Island City failedand stalled a train on the trestle, the
battery made it possible toget the train off the trestle.
All five of the sub-stations showed that a maximum of equipment

hadbeen used in a minimum of space withgreat simplicityofarrange-
ment. Therewere no mazes of ugly cables, for the cables were largely
laid in ducts or disposed ofbelow the main floor so that it was impossi-
ble to realizeactually how manyof themhadbeen buriedout of sight in
thebuilding. Each sub-stationwas brightandairy and the interioreffect
of yellow brickand grey soapstone pleasing to the eye. Most conspicu-
ous of course were the 1000or 1500 KWrotary converters, each withits
three transformers. The various sub-stations wereequipped with from
two to four of these rotaries. All the sub-station buildings were con-
structed of red brick and concrete and steel. All were fireproof, the
floors and roofs being concrete, the window framesof copper and steel,
and the window glass wired to insure protection against fire from

The main switchboard in each case was placed in a gallery on one
side of the building from which the operators could have an uninter-
rupted view ofall the machinery under their control. Because certain
holidaysor even particularhoursof certain daysresulted in enormously
swollen traffic and createdheavy demand forpower, e.g.race-track days
andbeach days, the Long Island Rail Road devised two portable sub-
stations, at that time interestinginnovations in engineering. Thesewere
1000 KW rotary converters with three transformers, a blower and
switchcomplete, all carried on fireproof steel car on theheaviest type of
standard Pennsylvania Railroad trucks. These portable sub-stations
could reinforce and increase greatly the power at any point on the line
and could be shifted from place to place. Small buildings to house the
portablesub-stations were provided at Belmont Park race trackand at
Springfield Junction near the Metropolitan race track; others were
located at Floral Parkand at Hempstead Crossing.

The third rail usedby the Long Island Rail Road and the distance it
was fixed from the track rail followed the practice of the Pennsylvania

Railroad and the InterboroughRapid Transit Company. The standard
distance was 27 inches from the gagelineof the track to the center line
of the thirdrail and with top ofrail 3 1/2 inches above the top of the
trackrail. Thisarrangement permitted equipment interchangebetween
the three railroads and generous clearance for steam equipment and
freight cars. The third rail was bolted to sleepers which extended at
intervals beyond the line oftrack andwas supported by insulators made
of vitreous clay. It was covered throughoutits whole length by a wood-
en plank overhead. At either side of a grade crossing the third rail ter-
minated in a broad slopingshoe. Acable connectingwith the third rail
passed underground in a concrete duct at a depthnot likely to permit of
interference by crossing repairs and came again to the surface on the
other side of the break connectingwith the next stretch of third rail.
During January 1905 the third rail was distributed all along the

tracks from Long Island City to Rockaway Park and poles were set
along the JamaicaBay trestle to support the big cables. Hundreds of
men hadbeen at work bonding the rails with copperbonds since Octo-
ber 1904.

Electrification II—The First Services

THE electrification, as contemplatedby the Long Island R.R. in1904, was an extensive one: the total length of the road tobeelectrified wasabout 96 milesof single track:
Woodhaven Junction to Rockaway Park 8.53 route miles
Flatbush Avenue to Belmont Park 14.5
Jamaica toLocust Manor 2.6
Locust Manor to Valley Stream 3.8
ValleyStream toFar Rockaway 5.17

The car equipment of the Long Island R.R. consisted wholly of
steam coaches and a completenewcar equipment became necessary for
the electric road. It must be remembered that at this time the Long
Island R.R. still intended to operateits cars in the IRT subway from
Jamaica to City Halland to the Bronx and for thispurpose the first cars
had to be interchangeablewith those in the IRT. The railroad accord-
inglyordered from the American Car andFoundry Company 122 steel
motor cars that werepractically the same as those in use at that timein
the Manhattan subway. They would be the most complete and up-to-
date vehiclesof theirkind in the world, fireproofand asnearly collision-
proof as cars could be.

The specifications called fora steel car 51 '4" longover the couplers,
88"width over the eaves and 12'1/2" in heightwitha weightof 79,564
lbs. and capableof seating 52. Todoaway with the necessity fora steel
roof which would be likely to make the carsrather warm in summer,
the roofwas made of compositeboard, a fireproofpreparation covered
over withcanvas. The cars as they would arrive from the manufacturer
would bemerely steel shells; all the equipmenthad to be installed after

Toprovide for thiswork, the Long Island erected its firstbig electric
car shop with maintenance and repair facilities on the easterly side of
Locust Avenue (now BaisleyBlvd.), Springfield, opposite theMetropol-
itan Race Track. The building was 625 X 70 andwas large enough to

permit 20 cars to be fittedout at one time. Other inspection sheds and
car barnswere built, all fireproof brick structures, at Rockaway park
(Nov. &Dec. 1904) 100X 30,another at Dunton50 X200andanother
at Morris Park Shops 75 X 200.

The first cars began toarrive on flatcars in Long Island City in April
1905 and were run out to Springfield immediately where the electrical
equipment sent out by Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co. could be
installedas well as the seatsand other furnishings.On April 13 a sample
car arrivedat Long Island City anda shipment of 30 to 40 wasreported
onits way from the works. By the end of April thirteen of the new cars
hadbeen delivered and twelvecars per weekwerepromised for delivery
by ACF until the entire order of 122 cars were completed. The shops
performed all the necessary electric wiring on each car, installed two
Westinghouse 113two-hundredhorse power motorson one truckand a
completeWestinghousemultiple controland air brake system. A novel
feature was the "dead man" control; if the motorman should take his
hand from the lever, the current would be shut off and the brakes auto-
maticallyapplied. During the week ofMay 15 the electrical engineers
conducted operating tests along the five-mile stretch of trackbetween
Aqueduct and Hammels, mostly the trestle across Jamaica Bay. There
were no street crossings at all and at this season of the
year—May—there was very little trafficmoving on the division,making
it an ideal place for trying out the steel cars. The authoritiesof Queens
County obligingly granted permission for the temporary operation of
electriccars over thissectionof track. Theofficersof the road accompa-
nied the engineers on the trial trip when the first car was run and
expressed astonishment at the smoothness of the run. New improve-
ments in the motor andbrake systems enabled the cars to be started or
stopped without any perceptible jerk or jar, a great improvement over
steam operation. The new cars werebeginning to arrive in quantity by
this time and it was proposed to try themout inunits of one, two, three
and six carsat a time.To insure the very highest degree of safety attain-
able, the current operating testswere planned as but the first of a series
of exhaustive tests of every part of the electrical system.

On May 22President Ralph Peters, accompaniedby the superinten-
dent, traffic manager andpassenger agent of the road, along with Elec-
trical Superintendent L. S. Wells and George Gibbsof Westinghouse,
consulting engineer of the Pennsylvania, the Long Island R.R. and the
InterboroughRapid Transit, toured the entire line ofthe proposed elec-
trification in a special train, taking as guests Borough President Cassidy

ofQueens and the chief inspectorof the electricalbureau. The borough
officialswere especially impressed by the high quality ofthe installations
and the elaborate precautions taken for the safety of the passengers.
Highlightof the tripwas an inspection ofthe great Locust Avenueshop
withits six tracks and storagecapacity of60 cars. Over 200 men were at
work fittingup the cars. Milesof steelpipeand ducts of every conceiva-
ble twist werecurrently being madehere for thesafe and perfect insula-
tion of the wires, over 600 feet ofwhich were used in each car. The
switchboards, levers, brakes and rheostats were all fabricated and
installedhere. It was estimated that each car, when completed,hadcost
the road about $13,000 and since 38 cars had thus far been out-shopped
with 11 more on the way, the total cost had mounted to $637,000
To increase the sizeof the electric fleet, the Long Island R.R. was

also fitting up as trailers with vestibules, couplers and jumpers, 55
center-door Rapid Transit coaches made obsolete by the Atlantic Ave-
nue Improvement. In addition, President Peters saw fit to order from
AmericanCar &Foundry 10moreregular passenger carsand 5 electric
baggage& expresscars, the latter of wooden construction.

On August 17a consignment of 15 ofthe newmotor cars arrived in
Long Island City. Amore recent order for5 baggage cars was yet to be
In themidstofall thissuccess and eagerexpectation for inaugurating

the electric service withina matter of a few daysat thelatest, the road
was suddenly facedwith oppositionand delay froman altogether unex-
pected quarter. When the railroad hadbegun to equip its newlyrebuilt
AtlanticAvenue Divisionwith the thirdrail, Borough Pres. Littleton of
Brooklynand his Public Works Commissioner Breckinridge protested
against the installation on theground that the third rail posed a danger
to the public safety, specifically at those points where public highways
crossed the railroad tracksat grade, giving easy access to the third rail.
Since the railroad owned in fee its own right ofway in the middle of
Atlantic Avenue for the whole distance from Brooklyn to Jamaica, it
was inclined todismiss theinitial protests of theborough officials. When
the railroad, however, in March 1905 filed what it thought would be a
routineapplication for "digging a trench between the railroad trackson
Atlantic Avenue where the same crosses existing streets for thepurpose
of installing jumpersfor the third rail installation"and metwith an ada-
mant refusal fromComm. Breckinridge, it became clear that the disa-
greement would escalate into a majorcontroversy.

WhenPres. Peters was queriedby the press as to his reaction to the
refusal, he voiced the hope that the important work would not be
delayed. In an effort to mollify the authorities, he emphasized that the
third rail would be so covered through the 18blocks that it would be
impossible foranyone to touch the livearea without taking considerable
pains to do soand that therewould be no thirdrail at all at the crossings
nor within ten feeton either side. It was thought that the solution to the
deadlock lay in a mandamusaction brought by therailroad against the
Public WorksDepartment tocompel the granting of a permit.

Commissioner Breckinridge, in an effort tojustify his action and to
adopt before the public the postureofa public officialmotivated onlyby
considerations for the public safety, explained that he himself was a
practical railroad engineer of long experienceand could thereforeclaim
some competence inpassing judgment on the Long Island installation.
He ascribed the Long Island's stubbornness to misguided advice from
an "outside engineering firm" and predicted that the railroad would
return to its old custom of cooperating with the city and working
together for the best interests of the public. When Breckinridge was
publicly criticized for delaying an important public improvement, he
asserted that he had spoken to William F. Potter of the Long Island
Rail Road as early as Sept. 1904 and sent a formal writtencommunica-
tion to him on Oct. 13, 1904. Potter, in reply, had said that he would
study his objection and would respond later. The railroad had thus
known for months of the city's objection and had had ample time to
alter the plans had they so desired. The railroad engineers, however,
informed the borough's authorities that they still believed their system
tobe perfectly safe and proposed to install it in the face ofcity objec-
tions. BoroughPres. Littleton, fearing that an attempt would be made
on Sunday, March 26, to lay the rail, directed police to patrol all 18
crossings to prevent the possibility ofa surprise attempt ona day when
thecourts were closed.
In the light of the corporation counsel's opinion that he had no

authority in the matter of laying the third rail, Comm. Breckinridge
turned the wholematter over to the State Board of Railroad Commis-
sioners which agreed to schedule a hearing for both sides. The whole
matterhad profound implications forboth the Long Island Rail Road
and the IRT,as it hadbeen planned from the beginning torun through
cars from the Bronx to Jamaica.The new motor cars had beenbuilt to
the same designs as the IRT's subway cars expressly to permit joint
operation and of course both were built to operate using the third rail

system. The Long Island Rail Road in its briefto the Board emphasized
that a trolley wire couldnotbe strung in the tunnelsas there were only
six inches ofheadroom between the topof the car and the roof of the
tunnel and pleaded not tobe forcedoutof its operating agreement with
the IRT and that any change at this late date would involve a very
heavy expenseand delay.
A month later—May 25—matters came toa head. A gangof Long

Island RailRoad workmenhadbeen at work inQueens County justeast
ofEnfield St. where there was no objection to a surface third rail and
after finishing the job, they crossed into Brooklyn to complete the
unlaid portion. As the men proceeded to lay the rail, one of the police-
men postedby Littleton to prevent justsuch an action arrested the fore-
man. The magistrate paroled the man forexamination four days later
after charginghim fordoing workwithouta permit. The railroad coun-
selmaintained that the railroad owned its right of way in fee and did not
need a permit.On June 14 .the magistrate supported the railroad's con-
tention that therailroad owned the property upon which the third rail
was being laid in fee simple and that the police had noright to trespass
on the Long Island Rail Road right ofwayor to interfere with the track

The Littleton-Breckinridge controversy was not the end of the rail-
road's troubles withits electrification. While thisproblemwas being set-
tledin the courts, the NewYork CityBoard of Aldermen,near the close
of its session onMay 2, 1905, passed a resolution referring to the Long
Island RailRoad's action in endeavoring to install a thirdrail systemon
Atlantic Avenue as "unwarranted, illegal and hazardous to life and
limb," and forbade the installation. One alderman with a little more
senseand lessbluster voted to refer the matter to the corporation coun-
sel to ascertain whether the board had any jurisdiction in the matter
since the workwasbeing done under the provisions ofa legislativeAct.
The opposition conceded this point but claimed that jurisdiction was
vested in the board by Chap. 187 of the Laws of 1876, giving the board
authority to describe the rules governing the operation of trains on
Atlantic Avenue. If the Corporation Counsel upheld the board and the
mayor concurred, the Long Island Rail Road would be enjoined from
proceeding with the third rail.
Amonth and a halflater, Corporation Counsel Delaney returned the

case with an opinion: "The Law of 1876 referred to in the resolution
applies only to territory comprised within the limits of the City of
Brooklynat that date. Theportion ofAtlantic Avenueupon the surface

ofwhich the Long Island Rail Road operates was formerly comprised
within the Town of New Lots and was not annexed to Brooklyn till
1886. Yourproposed ordinancecannot be legally adopted."
This legal opinion effectively disposed of the threat posed by the

Board of Aldermen. Two official attempts to thwart the electrification
had been defeated. A third one now arose froma private source. Mrs.
Ella H. Leffernan, who lived on the southeast corner of Ralph and
Atlantic Avenues, brought suit against the Long Island R.R. for
$15,000 for injuries to her easements to light, air and access caused by
the railroad structure on Atlantic Avenue. She charged that the
Improvement Actrequired that the structure be 14 ft. above thesurface
in the clear for the whole distance but that the railroad had made an
incline at Ralph Avenue with headroom of only 10 feet and that the
company had then cut down the grade4 feet.
In the first trial of this suit, the Long Island R.R. received an

unpleasant shockwhen the judgeawarded $1200 damages. The lady's
attorneys were elated, promptly took on four more such suits and
voiced the hope that once they tried numerous others, the railroad
would ultimatelypay out at least $200,000 in damages. The danger of
the verdict lay in the fact that the judge ruled prescriptive right was
only on thesurface ofthe street and did not justifya structure above the
surface, even though by legislative action,without a payment of dam-
ages for injuries suffered by property owners abutting on the elevated
structure. Thisopinion, if sustained, could expose the railroad to dam-
age suits from every property owner on both sides ofAtlantic Avenue
within Brooklyn. The Long Island R.R. appealed the case to the Appel-
late Divisionand obtaineda reversal of theverdict,but theplaintiff took
the case to the Court of Appeals.

TheCourt of Appeals in June 1905 ruled in summary that the Long
Island R.R. didin fact own its roadbed in feeand that AtlanticAvenue
was laid out on either side much later; that the plaintiff bought her
property knowing the railroadwas there; that the railroad changed the
surface operation solely in response to the increasing demands of the
times, and that the legislative Act authorizing this change implicitly
sanctionedand legalized theseinconveniences andannoyances to others
which are inseparable to the properconduct ofa railroad.
With the last of the legal delays and harrassments disposed of, the

Long Island R.R. made every effort to make up forlost time. Unfortu-
nately, the summer timetable for 1905had already gone into effect, and
toinaugurate electricoperation at thisbusy time ofthe yearwhen travel

wasat its peakand therailroad strained to meetits commitmentswould
invite massive confusion and disruption. The officials thereforedecided
to slip in a few electric runs on a very limitedbasis and to holdoff the
substitution ofa full electric service until the fall timetable.

On July 18, 1905 the first electric train to be run on Atlantic Aye.
started from Manhattan Crossing (East New York) shortly after 11
A.M. witha party ofLong Islandofficials onboard. The train consisted
of cars #1000 and #1032. As an evidence that confidencein the new
propulsion system was not as complete as we might suppose, the offi-
cials arranged to be followedbya steam locomotive in case of abreak
down. The train, after reachingFlatbush Avenue, was started again for
Rockaway Beach running over the entire division which had just been
equipped with the third rail. The tripwas made without a mishap and
the engineerswereunderstandably elated over its success. All along the
route, the new train, sodifferent from anything seenbeforeand going at
a much higher rate of speed than residents along the route had been
accustomed to, caused hundreds to stand and watch as it easily dis-
tanced the locomotive lumbering behind.
In the next few days a numberof the electric motor trains were run

back and forthwithoutpassengers over thelineof the railroad on sched-
ule time between Flatbush Avenue station and Rockaway Beach. No
accidents oruntoward delays occurred; the most noticeable thing was
the faster time made by the electric cars over the steam locomotives,
suggesting adrastic change in scheduled timein the future.

The railroad now felt secure enough toannounce thatbeginning the
following Wednesday, July 26, 1905, they would inaugurate regular
electric passenger train service between Flatbush Avenue and Rocka-
way Beach. Just three motor trains would be put on and they would
each make fourround trips. Thesemotor trains would take the place of
an equal numberof steam trainsand therewouldbe twoextra trips, one
from Flatbush Aye. at 11:05 A.M.and oneat 8:15 P.M.On the follow-
ing Sunday the 30th, seven electric trains would be put on making 28
round trips between 7 A.M. and 12midnight and taking the place of
steam trains. To avoid disruption of the existing timetable, the electric
trains were ordered to keep to the scheduleof the slower steam trains.

Early in the morningof the big day Pres. Peters wentover the line
andElectrical SuperintendentWellswas onhand all day. The first train
left Rockaway Parkat 7:55 A.M., arriving at Flatbush Avenue 35 min-
utes later after making 13 stops. Three trains of seven cars eachwere in

use, each train making four round trips; a total of nearly 5000 passen-
gerswas carriedin the newcars this first day. Toavoid the possibility of
electric sparks setting the JamaicaBay trestle on fire, immense buckets
ofwaterhadbeen placed allalong the trestle20 feetapart to drownany
blaze. The first days of electricoperation on the Long Island R.R. were
a "first" in twoother respects also; the passenger trains were the first to
use tunnel # 1between NostrandandFlatbush Avenuesand the first to
use the new underground tracks and one lone platform in the half-
finishedFlatbush Avenue stationexcavation.

When the fall timetablewas put into effect on Sept. 20th, the steam
trains were taken off the Rockaway Beach service entirely and all ser-
vice given by electricity. Theelectric servicehad effectively demonstrat-
ed its superiorityover steam; so speedy had the trains proved that the
timetable had to be completely overhauled to reduce the running time
between Flatbush Avenue andRockaway. The electrics had made the
run roughly eight minutes faster than the steam trains largely because
they started and stopped much more quickly.

Toprotect residents along the lines of electric operation from possi-
ble hazardous contact with the third rail, the Long Island R.R. built
heavy wooden fences along its right of way, and in so doing, closed up
informalbut long-used pedestrian footpathsat variouspoints. In several
instances localresidents, outraged at the closing of their familiar, well-
troddenroutes, cut down the fencesand burned them. AtAtlanticAve-
nue between Grant Avenue and Napier Place there was considerable
excitement over the incidentand several hundred people witnessed the
attack. The railroadrebuilt the fenceand this timeset its police force to
guarding the barrier.
At the other endof the electric line in Hammels, aparty ofresidents

on Sept. 29th cut down a picket fence crossing Pleasant Avenue. The
railroad rebuilt the fence the next dayand down it went again thatnight
and the sameperformance was repeated a second time. In this case it
was claimed that the fence cut off fromaccess to the village twodozen
families living along adock in JamaicaBay. Thecase had togo to court
for settlement.

Theopening of the electric service to Rockaway was but the first of
the many planned originally by the railroad. Now that the Rockaway
service had proved itself, the road could proceed with its program of
electrification for the rest of the Atlantic Branch to Jamaica, the Main
Line as far east as Mineola, the Montauk Branch to Valley Streamand
the Far Rockaway line. Later would come Hempstead and the North

Side Branch. The railroad now turned its attention to Jamaica as the
next goal. The bottleneck was still the Flatbush Avenue terminal, a
yawninghole in the ground with only twounderground tracks and one
islandplatform. The railroad laid twomore tracks and equipped them
with third rail during August and announced that service to Jamaica
would open August 22 or 23 with a few trains only until the Flatbush
Avenue terminal couldbe expanded. This announcement provedover-
optimistic; the railroad had to advance the date to August 30. Thenew
servicewas assigned to four crews, each consisting ofmotorman, con-
ductor, andbrakeman. The trainswould consist of three to five cars. 21
trips were scheduled in each direction from 5:30 A.M. to 11:30 P.M.

On Saturday Aug. 26th a test train made the run between Flatbush
Avenueand Jamaica; everything went smoothly but at Jamaica station
thebreaks in the third rail seemed to pose dangers to waiting passengers
and some modifications were made by the Westinghouse people.

On Tuesdaymorning Aug. 29, regular service opened. The first train
left Jamaica promptly at 5:25 A.M. under the personal direction of
Supt. of TransportationHartenstein, while the first eastbound train left
Flatbush Avenue at 6:19 A.M. The trip was made in about 30 minutes
but it was expected to reduce this considerably in the fall timetable of
Sept. 20. Thenew servicereplaced the old steamrapid transitwhichhad
been running since 1877 and they also were the first electrics to use the
new elevated stations at Nostrand Avenue and Warwick St. The trains
made stops atNostrand Avenue, ManhattanCrossing, WarwickStreet,
Norwood Avenue, Woodhaven, Woodhaven Junction, Clarenceville,
Morris Park, Dunton, Jamaicaand Rockaway Junction.
In September the railroadbegan running experimental test trains to

QueensVillage and Belmont Park in the hopeofhaving the electric ser-
vice ready for thecoming October meets. On MondayOctober 2ndelec-
tric service opened to Belmont Park and for the first time race track
crowdsused electric trains duringthe meet thefollowing week. As soon
as the racing season passed, the railroad planned to extend the rapid
transit electric service from Rockaway Junctionto Queens Village. On
Wednesday November Ist, when the winter timetable came out, the
electrics were extended to Queens on a regular basis. Twenty-five trains
were put in operation and the name of the trains was changed from
"suburbans" or "rapid transits" to "locals." Additional stopswere now
made at Hollis, Interstate Parkand Queens. The headway was from 20
minutes toa half hourduring the busy hours and it was expected the

excellent servicewould buildupa wholenew suburbansection fora dis-
tance five miles out of Jamaica.
The fame of the Long Island Rail Road's electrification reached a

crescendoin these exciting falldays of 1905. Thissmall road, in termsof
mileage at least, was the first road in the country to electrify an impor-
tant division of its system. On October 17th the Long Island proudly
ran an inspection excursion for a party of railroad presidents, officials
and technicians from the BRT, IRT, theErie, the CentralofNew Jersey
and the Pennsylvania. The party ran out to Belmont Park first,returned
to Woodhaven and then crossed JamaicaBay to Rockaway, inspecting
the car shops, sub-stationsand otherpoints of interest. On November5
furtheradjustments were made in the schedule.The long-distancesteam
trains ceased operating altogether out of Flatbush Avenue and hence-
forth all the service was given by the electric trains. Displacing the
steam service meant that 75 electric passenger trains each way daily
now operated between Brooklyn and Jamaica and 25 of thesewere the
locals. Theold steamrunning timewas cut down fromFlatbush Avenue
to Jamaica, 17 mins. as against 25 mins., and the trains now left
Flatbush Avenue from one to three minutes earlier than their Long
Island City counterparts so thatpassengers couldhave time to get out of
the carsat Jamaica. All long-distance passenger service now operated
out ofLong Island City, quite a change from the old days when steam
trains also originated out ofBrooklynand Bushwick.

Another important change was made on the Rockaway Division.
The steam trains fromLong Island City would henceforth make con-
nectionswith the local electric trains fromBrooklyn at the platform of
the station at Ozone Park, where passengers could transfer from one
train to another. The steam trainwould then runexpress across Jamaica
Bay making no stops between Ozone Park and Hammels, while all the
interveningstops would be made by the localelectric trains from Brook-
During the last days ofOctober 1905 theLong Island R.R. had hun-

dreds of menat work in the Rockaways inan effort tohave the thirdrail
system completed. Much of the right ofwayhad already been donebut
the space in front of each depot remained. Other men were at work
erecting picket and wire fences to preventpedestrians from crossing the
tracks; about three miles of this fencing was estimated as necessary
before the cars could begin running. Progress was excellent;by Nov-
ember 20 the third rail had been laid from Hammels station to Cedar-
hurst and the tracks had been enclosed on both sides by high picket

fences. On Wednesday Nov. 29th the current was turned on and run-
ning testsweremade all day;everything being found towork smoothly.
On FridayDecember 1, theregular electricservice opened toFar Rock-
away with 15 trains each way.

Rather surprisingly the railroad followed thisup with the extension
of electric service from Jamaica to Valley Stream on the Montauk Divi-
sion on Monday morning December 11, 1905. Nine express trainswere
run daily in both directions and the running time was reduced to 40
minutes. Over the winter the railroad delayed inaugurating electric ser-
vice from Flatbush Aye. over the branch between Far Rockaway and
Valley Stream. Then, when spring arrived, the road surprised everyone
with the announcement that it would extend the OceanElectric trolley
service from Far Rockaway station up the branch to Valley Stream.
This would give the inhabitants of Woodmere, Cedarhurst, Lawrence
and Inwood frequent fast serviceall day longin place ofthe rather infre-
quent train service. Asrecently asDecember 16th, thepeople along the
branch had protested against the poor schedule, especially during the
middle of the day, and asked for electric service that would meet shop-
ping needs.
In April 1906 the railroadbegan experimental runs with trolley cars

over the branch, the carsbeing fittedwith shoes togathercurrent rather
thantrolley poles. On April 3 arun was madewithrailroad officialsand
representatives of the WestinghouseCompanyas observers. Everything
worked out very satisfactorily and the company prepared to start ser-
viceon a regular basis during the summer. However, when the summer
timetable appeared, this plan to use trolleys was dropped and regular
electric trains gave serviceinstead.
The next step in the first phaseof electrificationwas the extensionof

the third rail to Hempstead. Soanxious had thecitizens of GardenCity
and Hempstead been to receive the benefits of electrification that they
began a public subscription toraise the moneyand so induce the Long
Island R.R. to agree. By the end ofMarch 1908, nearly $2000 was
reported to have been pledged; it was said that both the Garden City
Estates and the Garden City Company had promised to buy books of
tickets in advance. The whole third-rail installation was estimated at
$5000and it washoped that the twovillages of GardenCity and Hemp-
steadcould raise halfif not allof that sum. Portable substations at Flo-
ral Park and Hempsteadwould provide the necessarypower.

Some unpleasantness arose between the railroad crews and the citi-
zens whenan attempt was madeby the third-railmen toclose Columbia

Street crossing by placing two heavy ties on endon each side of the
tracks. Therailroadmen got the ties planted in the groundbefore word
got to the Hempstead Villagepresident Edward S. Titus. It did not take
long for Titus and his men to saw off one obstruction and dig out the
other. The railroad men then stretched wires across the highway on
both sides of the track, but Titus cut them and the railroad men then
stopped trying toput upobstructions. President Titus thenleft a watch
at the crossing to insure that the men took no further steps to close off
the street. The railroad men made no further attempt to "steal the
street" and jumperswere later installed at the crossing.

By mid-May 1908 the railroad had finished third-railing the Hemp-
stead line and on May 16, President Peters issued invitations to the
officers of the road and many prominent Hempstead people for a trial
tripbetween Flatbush Avenue and Hempstead onMay 19. Residents of
the village turnedout en masse to greet the first electric train which
arrived in Hempsteadat 3 P.M. Althoughno specialprogram hadbeen
planned,Pres. Peters and other officialsspoke oftheir satisfaction at the
completion of the line and the improved service it would bring. On
TuesdayMay 26, 1908 regular service beganwith electric trainson the
Hempstead Branch and on this occasion, suitable village observances
greeted the great change.

The last project in the first electrification phasewas the third-railing
of the Long Beach Branch between Lynbrook and Long Beach. Work
began in the icy days of January 1910, when a large force of men sur-
veyed and took measurements for the installation. The Long Beach
Branch at this time was still a single-track road and had onlyrecently
been accordedyear-round service. It was expected that in the coming
spring months the branch would be both double-tracked and third-
railed in one operation. This project wenton very slowly over the next
eight months. Finally, on August 26, 1910 the current was turned on
anda test car run through to the beach. The railroad decidedthat, since
theopening of the Pennsylvania Tunnels was now so near, to celebrate
both events at the same time. Accordingly, on September 8, 1910, a
momentous date in the history of the railroad, one of the first trains to
run through the tunnels ran directly to Long Beach. Regular service
began immediately.

The final spurt of electrificationinvolved the newly-builtMain Line
tracks in connectionwith the opening of thePerm Tunnels and the Sun-
nyside Yards. (See these chapters and theHopedale realignment.) This
was donein threestages:Woodside to JamaicaJune 23, 1910; Woodside

toWoodhaven Junction (Glendale Cut-off) June 23, 1910; Woodside to
Perm Station, September 8, 1910.

To furnish power for the new lines, new sub-stations were built in
1910at Winfield and Mineola, and in 1912 at WreckLead, Cedarhurst
and Floral Park.

Background of the Tunnels

IT is widely believed by many that the Long Island Rail Road'sentrance into Manhattan wasduesolely to thevisionand energyofthe Pennsylvania Railroad. This is not historically true and is
unfair to the Long Island Rail Road. The fact is that four different
attempts to reach NewYork were made at different times by the Long
Island andat the time of the Pennsylvania take-over, one of themwas
very close to realization. It was the opening of the BrooklynBridge in
1883 that first made the idea of a New York City terminal seem an
attainable goal.President Austin Corbin conceived the ideaof building
a four-track elevated railroad from the Long Island R.R. terminal at
Flatbush Avenue, along Flatbush Avenue and over a proposedFlatbush
Avenue Extension to the Brooklyn Bridge, and, if the Bridge commis-
sioners approved, to Chatham Square, Manhattan.At the same time the
Long Island R.R. itself would elevate the rest of its tracks onAtlantic
Avenue from the Flatbush Avenue terminal out to the Queens County
line. Corbin hoped tointerest British and American capitalists to buy
up real estate and financethe elevated line. In May 1883 Corbin organ-
ized the Brooklyn and Long Island TrunkLine Railroad and incorpo-
rated it on May 31 witha capital offive milliondollars. Although con-
struction was confidently predicted for the fall of the year, the whole
project quietly sank into the limbo of forgottenschemes.

The following year—lBB4—President Austin Corbin of the Long
Island R.R. induced the officers of the Atlantic Avenue Rail Road to
joinhim in a plan to build an elevated railroad along Atlantic Avenue
from South Ferry to Jamaica. This company was incorporated as the
Brooklynand Long Island CableRailway Company. An injunction pre-
vented immediate construction but Corbin revived the idea in 1886
under the new name of TheLong Island Elevated Railway Company.
Again nothing happened.
In 1887 the New York and Long Island Railroad Company was

incorporatedwith the avowed purpose ofbuilding a tunnel under the
East Riverbetween Long IslandCity and 42ndStreet, Manhattan. Pres.

Corbin of the Long Island R.R. publicly denied that he or any of the
Long Island R.R. directors were interested in the tunnel but many
believed the project derived its strength from secret backing. A dyna-
mite explosion in Long Island City terminated all work in December
1892 and for twelve years the project layabandoned. Then in 1900 the
Belmont syndicate took over the idea and completed what is today
knownas the Steinway tunnel.

Pres. Corbin of the Long Island R.R. next seized upon the
Blackwell's Island Bridge project as a vehicle for Long Island R.R.
entrance into Manhattan. In December 1893 Corbin bought out the
controlling interest in the bridge company and then incorporated the
Long Island and New York TerminalRailroad Company. The bridge
was tobe built on the cantilever principlewith fourpiers; therewere to
be tworailroad tracks, two roadways and twofootpaths. The NewYork
terminuswas tobe at 64thStreet and the Queens terminus on Thomson
Avenue, Long Island City. Connection would be made with the Long
Island R.R. on a steel viaduct at Sunnyside; in New York the trains
wouldreach the surfaceat both 44thStreet and 81st Street with stations
at each. Construction on the bridge began in 1894 but the death of
Corbin in 1896stopped the work.

The last attempt and the one thatcame closest to realizationwas the
tunnel scheme first proposed in 1892. In June of that year the New
York, New Jersey and Eastern Railroad was incorporated to continue
the Long Island R.R. in a tunnel from the Flatbush Avenue terminus
along Flatbush Avenue, Fulton Street, Pineapple Street and thence
underthe East River toandunderMaidenLaneand CortlandtStreet to
the New Jersey state line and thence to a connection with the Penn-
sylvania Railroad in Jersey City. The work was expected to take four
yearsandrequire vast sums ofmoney.On Dec. 12, 1892Pres. Corbin of
the Long Island R.R. conferred in Philadelphia with Pres. Roberts of
the PRRand a number ofwealthyinvestors and they decided to begin
the work at once. Directors were elected and empowered to proceed
with the workof construction. In May 1893 the name of the company
was changed to the Brooklyn, New York and Jersey City Terminal
Railway Company. Thecompanyapplied to the Board of Aldermen for
a franchiseand there the matter died. In 1897 the new president of the
Long IslandR.R., WilliamH. Baldwin, renewed the project and tried to
push it through the regulatory bodies in New York and Albany. The
Municipal Assembly shelved the bill in two successive years, but in May
1899 Mayor Van Wyck of New York signed the tunnel bill. In June

1899 the Long Island R.R. incorporatedthe New YorkandLong Island
TerminalRailway Company to build the tunnel toWest and Cortlandt
Streets in New York. In the midst of the preparations for this momen-
tous engineering project, the Rapid Transit Commission announcedits
intention to extend the IRT tunnel system to Brooklyn. At this unex-
pected news the Long Island R.R. withdrewits application forits own
tunnel and there the matter rested when the Pennsylvania Railroad
boughtout the Long IslandR.R. in May 1900.

When the Pennsylvania tookover, therewasmuchspeculation about
what that giant system would do about a Manhattan terminal for the
Long Island, and whether they would revive the dormant New York
andLong Island TerminalRailwayproject. It is probable that twomain
factorsinfluenced the PennsylvaniaRailroad to drop the Brooklyn tun-
nel scheme and tobuild a tunnelelsewhere. Onewas the prospect ofthe
New York Connecting Railroad which had been created by the New
York Central R.R. and which had received a franchise in 1900. The
N.Y. Central had shown no disposition to purchase the Long Island
R.R., but its motive to build the Connecting Railroad was to make a
satisfactory traffic agreement with the Long Island R.R. and have the
use ofthat company's Brooklyn, BayRidge andLong Island City termi-
nals forits own freightand passenger traffic. Access to thefreight traffic
of the City ofBrooklyn with its million people was alone a powerful

The second overriding reason for an uptown tunnel was to gain a
Manhattan terminal and to acquire space for freight and passenger
yards. TheCentral had alwaysprofited greatlyby the fact thatits termi-
nal was in Manhattanwhereas the Pennsylvaniahad tobe satisfied with
Jersey City. The railroad had striven to overcome this handicap by
establishing excellent ferry services between Jersey City and Cortlandt
St., Desbrosses St., and 23rd Street. If now the Hudson River barrier
were somehow to be surmounted, the Pennsylvania could secure a New
York terminal like the Central and the same tracks could be continued
under the East River toLong Island where connection could be made
with the Long Island R.R. networkand the projected New York Con-
necting Railroad. Instead ofbeing dead-ended in Jersey City the Penn-
sylvania wouldsecure extensiveadditional terminals, freightyards and
depots in three of the five boroughs ofNew York. The Pennsylvania
Railroadat the turnof the centurywas in themidst ofan unprecedented
mood of expansionism; its directors and officers were immensely capa-
ble, and its financialresources almostunlimited, thanksto its enormous

earnings and its ownership and control by the Philadelphia financial

The Pennsylvania Railroad used the remainder of the year 1900 to
become acquainted with the physical layout of the Long Island R.R.
and its equipmentand operating methods. Pennsylvania officialsdid not
interfere withLong Island R.R. workings; theywere content toobserve
and study. The result for all this was a decision in Philadelphia to
extend the Long Island R.R. into Manhattan by building a tunnel from
Long Island City to midtown Manhattan. This was tobe the first phase
of a grand design; once the Long Island R.R. had been extended to
Manhattan, the next step would be to extend therailroad from a point
in the Jersey meadows under the Hudson River to a junctionwith the
new Long Island terminal,making a through line.

The first step in thisplan was effected in June 1901 with the incorpo-
ration of the Long IslandExtension Railroad Company. The incorpora-
tion papers called for a four-mile tunnel from a point in Queens to a
point in Manhattansouth of 50th Street. Corporatelife was to be 1000
years and the capital stock one million dollars. The tunnel was tocon-
sist of twoparallel tubesandwould be used for passengers only. Samuel
Rea, 4thvicepresident of the PennsylvaniaRailroad, waselected presi-
dent of the new company and Pres. Baldwin of the Long Island R.R.
was namedas one of the directors. On June 22, 1901 when the mapof
the Extension Co. was filed, it developed that the tunnel was much far-
ther downtown than had been assumed. The tunnel, after crossing the
East River, would continueunder 33rdStreet and terminate at 7th Ave-
nue with a station near Broadway. To avoid advancing real estate
prices, thecompany would not say whether the stationwas to be east or
west ofBroadway.

ThePennsylvania at this time did not file fora corresponding tunnel
under the Hudson Riverbecause it was already committed to a bridge
proposal. The company had earlier secured a franchise for the North
River BridgeCompany. This bridge was to cross the river at or about
23rd Street with a terminal at 9thAvenue and a viaduct from it would
connect with the Long Island R.R. tracks in the 33rd Street tunnel.The
Pennsylvania Railroad was the prime mover in the bridge project but
because of the expense and extent of the work, it was considered an
enterprise to be financedby a union ofall the railroads with terminals
on the New Jersey shore: the Erie, the Delaware, Lackawanna &West-
ern, the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the Lehigh Valley, the West

Shore and the Ontarioand Westernwere all tocontribute to theexpense
of the undertaking.
In the summer of 1901 the Pennsylvania'sgrand designevolved with

great rapidity. First, the Pennsylvania Railroad bought from the New
York Central Railroad the charter of the New YorkConnecting Rail-
road. Secondly, the Pennsylvania began an eight million dollarupgrad-
ing of its great terminal and pier property at Greenville, N.J. The
motive behindboth moves was to completea great railroadbelt around
Manhattan. Roughly described, the route of the proposed belt line
would start at Greenville (Bayonne) N.J. where thenew piersand ware-
houses werealready going up. From Greenville across the bay to Bay
Ridge on theBrooklyn shore was threemiles. The cars were tocross the
water on floatsand, uponbeing landedat Bay Ridge, would berun over
the Long Island's Bay RidgeDivision to Glendale.From Glendale to a
point on the East River near Astoria, the cars would run over the pro-
posed New York Connecting Railroad and the Hell Gate Bridge to a
connectionwith the NewHaven, and,by a further laying of track in the
Bronx, from Port Morris toa point near 161st Street, achieve a direct
connection with the New York Central. This plan gave the Penn-
sylvania Railroada belt linearound Manhattanisland on the south, east
and north, and with the proposed Long Island R.R. tunnel under the
East River, a direct terminal on Manhattan island in the heart of the

The first step in the implementationof theNew YorkExtension Rail-
road tunnelunder theEast Riverwas to secure the certificate of conve-
nience and necessity from the Railroad Commissioners in Albany and
this provedno problem. Next came the submissionof the project to the
Rapid TransitCommission forits approval. As late as October 1901 the
Pennsylvania Railroad was still pushing the Long Island Extension
Railroad through these regulatory bodies, yet by December 13th, a
momentous change had occurred in the thinking of the railroad. The
North RiverBridgeCompany, whichseemedas farawayas ever ofreal-
ization and burdened by the involvement of too many railroads, was
abandoned by the Pennsylvania Railroad and that road insteadboldly
substituted a second tunnel, this time under the Hudson River, as the
vehicle whereby it would realize a midtown Manhattan terminal, and
link up with the Long Island R.R. subsidiary.

Accordinglyon Dec. 13, 1901 the Pennsylvania Railroad requested
the Rapid Transit Commission to suspendhearings on the Long Island
Extension Railroad and to consider instead the revised route of a new

company, the Pennsylvania, New York Extension Railroad Company
which would directly link the Pennsylvaniaand Long Island systems.
Thisnewcompany hadbeen organizedjust two daysbefore onDec. 11,
1901 and provided fora Hudson River tunnelbetween 23rd and 45th
Streetsand to connect with the proposed Long Island R.R. East River
tunnelunder 33rd Street.

The PennsylvaniaRailroad used the latter months of 1901 to begin
acquiring property for a proposed terminal station in the vicinity of
Broadwayand 33rd Street (Herald Square). By the last days ofDecem-
ber the road had acquired the final two parcels at numbers 49 and 51
West 33rd Street. The Pennsylvania also employed the latter months of
1901 to make soundings in the North River to ascertainconditions on
the bedof the river. Although winterconditions like cold temperatures,
windsand fog made the work difficult, the engineers were able to dis-
cover that nounexpected obstacles to the tunnels existed and that the
projectwas entirely feasible.In Aprilwhen the winterweathermoderat-
ed, surveyors went out and triangulated the Hudson tunnelroute.
While thiswork was going on favorably, the PennsylvaniaRailroad

again found it expedient to change the legal status of the corporation
underwhich the tunnel was being built. On Apr. 21, 1902 the Penn-
sylvania, New Yorkand Long Island Rail Road Co. was incorporated
as a replacement for the Pennsylvania New York Extension Rail Road
Co. The capital stock this time was set at $20,000,000. The company
wasauthorized tobuild tunnels under 31stand 33rdStreets to the inter-
section of Thomson Avenue & Purvis St. Long Island City; also two
additional tracks under 32nd Street from west of 9th Avenue to sth
Avenue; also as many tracks as necessarybetween 7th and 9thAvenues
and 31stand 33rd Streets for terminal operation.

On Oct. 9, 1902 the Rapid TransitCommissionissued a certificateof
franchiseand onNov. 24, 1902 the State Railroad Commissiongranted
a certificate of convenience and necessity. The next step was to get the
permission of the city authorities, at that time the Board of Aldermen.
The negotiations for thisoccupied severalmonths; the agreementham-
mered out was as follows: 32nd Street from 7th Avenue to9th Avenue
would be closed for terminal purposes; also that the company could
occupy33rd Street 600 feet east ofFourth Avenue and 400 feetwest of
it for an east side terminal. All thiswas for25 years witha renewal for
another 25 years upon a reevaluation.

Thecompensation to bepaid the city was as follows: forrights under
the beds of the Hudsonand East Rivers outside the pierhead lines $100

each annually for a period of 25 years; for rights under the dock and
bulkheads, 50c per linear foot of single track railway annually for the
first ten years and $1 annually for the next succeeding 15 years; forits
rights and foundations under streets or avenues in Manhattan (except
31st and 33rd Streets between 7th and Bth Avenues and Bth and 9th

Torth Shore Br. 2311 2341 352: ?arRockaway Br. 5286 6131 873: tockaway Beach 2511 2925 699- lempstead 647 803 123l )yster Bay Vading River Br. Atlantic Ave. Br 1055 904 507 1129 947 519 140: 1081 87' ,ong BeachBr. Manhattan Beach Br. 457 2 496 2 1021 Another interesting way to view Long Island R.R. traffic is to see it in terms of its distributionby typesof service; paucity ofrecords again limits us to four years: Still another interesting sidelight on the growth of Long Island R.R. traffic is revealed by the increasedsales of the seven different typesof tickets available in this era: 1901 1902 1903 Total riders 14,520,218 16,611,102 17,552,060 Increase or Decrease increase overprevious year 17.2% 7.33% 5.66% Increase or tecrease Commuters 1904 18,815,477 4.54% 1905 18,199,162 decrease 3.28% 1906 1907 21,626,390 23,950,547 increase 18.83% 10.75% 1908 23,242,838 decrease 3.0% 1909 1910 1911 27,466,761 30,978,615 33,867,228 increase 18.17% 12.79% 9.32% 10,262,950 1912 37,319,812 10.19% 11,534,562 1913 1914 1915 40,606,183 42,127,526 42,629,325 8.81% 2.53% 2.39% 12,543,030 13,374,679 14,074,975 1916 45,802,722 3.44% 15,932,739 1917 1918 1919 1920 50,786,028 55,004,086 64,067,541 72,743,820 10.9% 16.48% 13.54% 17,601,613 17,642,700 25,426,950 28,891,350 1925 100,922,813 56,675,578 Commuters Local electric Other Delancey St Rockaway Be Delancey St.- Rockaway Bead 1909 1910 1911 1912 7,744,860 8,932,413 10,262,950 11,534,562 4,252,201 5,452,342 6,290,398 7,749,967 14,305,920 15,221,268 15,778,166 16,504,817 1,163,778 1,372,592 1,515,714 1,530,466 Wehave the commutation statistics of a few stations for thisdistant period: Commutation 10-Trip 20-Trip 50-Trip 500-Mile 1000-Mile Special Tickets 83,028 15,354 20,676 18,087 46,514 13,393 197,052 151,210 31,279 20,921 16,781 110,964 1,538 332,701 June 1909 June 1910 July 1912 July 1915 July 1918 VIONTAUK BR. Springfield Lynbrook Rockville Centre Baldwin 89 540 160 97 591 160 480 665 615 755 216 828 992 Freeport Vlerrick 523 76 601 103 676 963 1209 Bellmore \mityville Babylon Bayshore [slip Sayville Patchogue 57 228 226 211 73 63 99 66 552 243 268 76 83 94 303 478 342 299 496 200 205 393 335 569 225 LONG BEACH: East Rockaway Long Beach 71 107 385 525 724 ATLANTIC BRANCH: East New York 8 21 Railroad Avenue Union Course 33 47 80 64 SVoodhaven Morris Park Famaica 4 128 291 15 178 336 220 390 322 250 840 June 1909 June 1910 July 1912 July 1915 July 1918 5YSTER BAY BR: loslyn !ea Cliff 31en Cove Jyster Bay 63 378 47 139 77 367 54 138 614 522 677 "JORTH SHORE BR: ilmhurst 60 50 Corona Pushing Main St. MurrayHill koadway )ayside 175 243 384 82 266 144 214 386 91 302 198 381 302 330 565 Douglaston jttleNeck 90 137 117 143 3reatNeck >ort Washington College Point Vhitestone 203 61 231 192 53 225 268 329 366 433 222 iVhitestone Landing 73 79 iEMPSTEAD BR: lollis Jueens 131 87 152 125 305 -loral Park Nassau Blvd. jarden City lempstead 97 3 145 310 124 25 206 338 310 384 281 277 395 350 208 443 501 VlAIN LINE: vfineola ■Vestbury rlicksville Antral Park 52 24 65 32 74 41 73 43 217 Jarmingdale lonkonkoma 46 16 50 23 The early timetablesof the Long Island R.R. shownoparticular pat- ternof train numbersbut in 1907 the Long Island decided for the first time to adopt a system of train numbering that conformed to the prac- ticeof the big trunklines of the country in assigning particularnumber blocks toparticular branches.On the Long Island the following system made its appearance with thespring timetableof May 17, 1907: 0-200 Montauk Branch 200-300 Main Line 500 Oyster Bay Branch 600 Wading RiverBranch 700 Hempstead Branch 800 Long Beach 1000 Rockaway &Atlantic Branches 2000 Sunday trains Having viewed the railroad as a whole, we can profitably turn at this point to the particularservices of each branchand the traffic densities on eachduring thisera. The Main Line to Greenport usually enjoyed three through daily trains during the spring, summer and falland three Cape Horn trains. Themost famousthrough train was the Cannon Ballwhich originated in Long Island City sometime after 4 P.M. andmade the 65 miles to June 1909 June 1910 July 1912 July 1915 July 1918 iVADING RIVER BR: Huntington 215 251 369 373 415 ""Jorthport Cings Park 5ort Jefferson ihoreham 112 13 31 12 86 24 43 21 IOCKAWAYBR: iVoodmere Hedarhurst JarRockaway idgemere 108 237 198 1490 156 121 222 220 1541 175 345 2468 568 294 450 224 319 503 263 2726 1531 Vrverne lockaway Beach 764 930 799 1122 2170 2708 3211 6241 Manor in an hour and 28 minutes, and the full95 miles run in an hour and 55 minutes. At Manor the traindivided, half going to Greenport and half to Amagansettor Montauk. The Cannon Ball usually began running around June 1 and continued often till about Nov. 1. The first passenger stop after Jamaica was Riverhead and the true destinationof the passengers was not Greenport but the hotels onShelter Island orat Orient which did an immense businessduring thesegolden years. The Cannon Ball usually consisted of 12, 13 and 14cars followedby a sepa- rate baggage train; in some years the traffic forced the railroad torun the train in two sections. TheCape Horn trains (Greenport via Manor to Amagansett) nor- mally made one tripa day, but two others met the Montauk train at Eastportand ran back to Greenport. Therailroadactivity at Greenport at this day was at its height. All summer long a newspaper train left New York at about 4 A.M. andarrived inGreenport at around 7 A.M. On July 4th,Labor Day andweekends duringheat waves, special trains sometimes had to be made up outside of the timetable to accommodate the crowds arrivingon the boats fromNew London,Orient and Shelter Island. Riverhead enjoyed five trains a day each way in summer and three in winter. In the fall the county fair held at Riverhead on four days attracted visitors fromall over the county and special trainscame over the Main Line and from thesouth side villages by way ofEastport. The present-day practice ofcutting the Main Line in two and terminat- ing trains at the halfway mark in Ronkonkoma was unknown before 1906, but after that date from three to five trainsdaily terminatedtheir runs here instead ofat Hicksvilleor Wyandanchas formerly. An unusual feature on the Main Line was the annual Shopping Day excursion organizedby the Long Island Rail Road for the benefit of the East End people. The big stores in downtownBrooklyn cooperated in this venture with special sales of all kinds advertised in the county papers aweek in advance. Thedate was often the Saturday at theendof the first week in Januaryand the cost of the excursion ticketwas onlya third of the regular fare and entitled the purchaser to stay overnight besides. This train left Greenport just after 5 A.M. and picked up pas- sengers as farwest asRiverhead; the Wading River specialoffered the rate only east ofPort Jefferson and the Amagansett trainas far west as Speonk. In 1910, three thousandpersons patronized this excursion; in 1916, theGreenport special brought in 586, of which 216 came from Riverhead; the Wading River train originated36, the Amagansett spe- cial 476 and the Speonk special 508. It is interesting to note that the East End special has been revived by the Long Island R.R. in the last twoor three years. The opposite endof the Main Line at Long Island City was a verita- ble railroad paradise on summer weekends and holidays. Train after train ofparlor cars, day coachesand baggage cars steamed outof Long Island City headedEast; as manyas 100,000bustling, perspiring people poured through thegates of thiscrowdedstation. A reporter detailed to watch the July 4th traffic in 1908 noted that at 1 P.M. the Cannon Ball pulled out in two sections; at 2 P.M. the twosectionsof the Amagansett train; at 1:35 the nine cars of the Greenport Express; at 1:47 ten cars of the Hamptons train; at 3:42 P.M. ten cars of the all-parlorcar train to Quogue& Amagansett; at 4:12 another Riverhead train of 10 cars and at 4:15 section one ofthe Hamptons trainwithnineparlor carsand sec- tion twowithhalfparlor carsandhalf day coaches. During the two-day July4thweekend in 1910, twenty extra trainshad tobe hastilymade up at Long Island City and the railroadwas sodesperate for motivepower that drill engines and yard switchershad to be pressed into service. As we look over thegaunt and ravagedrailroad yards at Long Island City today, it is almost impossible to imagine that this was once the goal of hurrying throngs and the scene of more than 650 train movements in oneday. The Montauk Branch was the busiest line on the Long Island R.R. in the summers before WorldWar I and, like the Main Line, enjoyed the distinction of name trains and a variety of special services. During the summer time Amagansett was the usual terminal of the Montauk Branch, with servicefluctuating between fiveand seven trains onweek- days; up through 1905, only two trains aday ran through to Montauk on weekdays, but after 1906, all five or seven trainsoperated to the Fort Pond Bay terminal.Between 1900 and 1905 anywhere from two to five additional weekday trains turned back either at Center Moriches, or Eastport, but after about 1910, Speonk became the regular turn-back point. Patchogue, as the most important village west of the Hamptons, enjoyed a special service of its own; there were Patchogue Expresses with limited stops and at least five or six weekday trains terminated their runs here. This number rose rapidly to nine in 1913 and 11 in 1914. Seventeenmiles to thewest wasBabylon, a sizeable village;Baby- lon had been the terminus for the local service on the south side since the first train had come through in 1867, and when the Long Island R.R. enlarged and relocated the yard facilitiesin 1905, increasingnum- bers of trains terminatedtheir runs at Babylon. In 1901, only six east- boundweekday trains terminatedat Babylon butby 1913, fifteen trains wereending their runs here. During the summer time the statelyand wealthyold villages ofEast Hampton and Southampton alongwith the lesserneighboring villages of Westhampton, Quogue and Hampton Bays supported an express train service that matched in speed and luxury the Cannon Ball and Shelter Island Express. TheCannon Ball itself broke at Manor and ran non-stop to Westhampton, ending its 104 mile run at Amagansett in twohours and 50 minutes. Besides the Cannon Ball was the Hamptons Limited, an all-parlorcar train, running non-stop to Quogue and then making the waystations to Amagansett. Beginning in 1905 the Long Island R.R. madea specialeffort to stim- ulate trainandboat excursions toBlock Islandand for thispurpose cre- ated a new fast train, the Block Island Express. The new express left Long Island City at 10:42 A.M. daily, made the 116 mile run in two hours and 54 minutes; it wasrated as the 7th fastest train in the United States. The train'soriginal consist was a combinationcar, two coaches, two parlor cars, but as the train became popular, ten to twelve cars became the rule. The Block Island Express, unlike the Cannon Ball, operated the wholedistance over the Montauk Branch, stopping only at Babylon, Bay Shore, Patchogue, Center Moriches and Westhampton. In the spring of 1909 the railroad put on a new fast express, the "SouthShore Limited" leavingLong Island Cityat 4:42 P.M., stopping onlyat Bay Shore,Sayville, Patchogue, thenall stops toEastport. Besides thesename trains the Montauk Branch had its regular Mon- tauk or Amagansett Expresses, limited-stop trains from Center Moriches or Speonk,Patchogue Limiteds, club-car specials, etc., mak- ing thisbranch themostheavily traveledon the system. The homeward- bound LaborDay crush of 1909 gives us a good pictureof the frenzied activity on the southside in this goldenage ofrailroading. Theregular parlor car train #3 left Amagansett with nine day coaches and three parlor cars; train #7 followedwith twelve parlor cars. Number 31 left Center Morichesin twosectionsof ten cars each and #49pulled out of Patchogue in twosection; the first, an all-parlorcar trainof ten carsand the other, ten day coaches.Train #9had to be run fromAmagansett in threesections, each of 10or twelvecars. Evening trains on the sameday duplicated the morning rush: the 7:30 P.M. Amagansett train came in threesections of ten to twelvecars each and onebaggage section. Train #15 came in two sections from Patchogue; #23 had an extra section fromSayvilleand #11 in twosections, the second picked up at Center Moriches. Therewere 15 to 18 solidbaggage trains besidesone to three baggage cars on each of the long-distance trains. The earliest known instanceof Long Island R.R. trains running in threesections appears in accounts of the LaborDay crushof 1908,and thisphenomenonis pecu- liar to the Montauk Division only. Sag Harbor,almost at the farend of the Montauk Div., was a large townwith over 3000 people. Steamboats operated by the Long Island R.R., gave passage toGreenport, Shelter Island and NewLondon, and commercial fishing made the town prosperous. Most of the trains run- ning to Amagansett and Montaukhad aSag Harbor connection which consisted of a shuttle train waiting on a siding at Bridgehampton sta- tion. The consist was always one of the Long Island's oldest locomo- tives,an aged 4-4-0 or ex-Manhattan Beach 0-4-6 tank engine pulling two ancient turtle-roofcoaches of Civil War vintage, one a combine; curiously, theengine ran backwards headed south forlackofa turntable at Bridgehampton. Rather suprisingly, the Sag Harbor Branch had a small local service all its own, which consisted of threerush-hour trips each wayon weekdays; thesecommuter trains made a stop at Noyack Road. Although the western endofthe MontaukBranch lacked the varnish and elegance of the eastern end, it nevertheless enjoyed a full and fre- quent train service. Babylon usually had 25 weekdays trains each way alongwith the advantageofbeing the first stop for a few through East End trains; the bigger villagesofFreeportand RockvilleCentrenormal- lyhad 16-17 trains each way. In the first fewyears of this century, the North ShoreBranch and the Montauk produced almost equal numbers ofcommuters,but after 1914, as the North Side lost riders to the sub- way, the Montauk Branch moved far ahead in commuting patronage withRockville Centre and Freeport the bestpaying stations. The Wading RiverBranch normally hadabout a dozen trains a day each way; three of theseonly went through to Wading River and the rest terminated at Port Jefferson with an occasional short line train to SmithtownorNorthport. Theouter twelvemiles of the linewas areve- nue vacuum because the branch terminated in a meadow and served tiny hamlets that showed a semblance of life only in summer. Port Jef- ferson,an old village and the businesscenter fora large area originated a small traffic in passengers and freight, but the real economic support for the Wading RiverBranch came from the village ofHuntington and toa lesser extent, Northport. Huntingtonespecially originateda heavy passenger and freight traffic the yeararound; the summer traffic was enormous thanks to the large number of affluent people who owned estates or rented houses. Boating and yachting were big pursuits in Huntington Harbor and Brooklyn's Squadron "C" Cavalry held sum- mer maneuvers regularly in the southern outskirts. The local trolley, and, after 1909, the cross-island trolley, contributed to the bustling commercialactivity ofHuntington. Northport was a thriving summer resort town with many hotelsand boarding houses and its broad harborinvited boatingand fishing. The handicap of being located threemiles away from its own station was remedied in 1902 when the Long Island R.R. itselfbuilt a connecting trolley line for passengers and freight. The summer timetable of the Wading River Branch had one name train, the "Port Jefferson Flyer" that made Huntington the first stop; despite the single track, tortuous grades and hilly country the trains made fast time, one hour and twenty mins. fromLong Island City to Port Jefferson.The "Flyer" stopped only at Huntington, Northport and Port Jefferson and made it possible forbusinessmen to spend the week- endwith their vacationing families. It usually appeared on the timeta- bles about April Istand was withdrawnaroundThanksgiving Day. On thebig holidaysweread of WadingRiver trainsrun in two sectionswith up to nine cars on each and with separate baggage trains following. Some way trains even in summer did not run through to the city; the trainran only as farasMineola wherepassengers transferred to await- ing Oyster Bay train. TheOysterBay Branchhad twelve to fifteen trainseachway the year arounddepending on the season.Most ofthe stations on theline served rural hamlets that originatedlittlerevenue for the railroad; only the vil- lagesofRoslyn, SeaCliffand Glen Covehad substantialpopulation and traffic.Roslyn was an old village in a deepvalley at the head of Hemp- stead Harbor; the stores located there, and the trolley running north and south, made it a small commercialcentre. Sea Cliff was a summer resort withmanyhotelsand boardinghouses, a steamboat landing place and the site ofa summer Methodist camp meeting. Glen Cove was a large commercial town with sizeable factories and a substantialpopula- tion (6000). Therewere noname trainson the OysterBay Branchbut therewere fast summer expresses stopping only at Roslyn, Sea Cliff, and Glen Cove. These trains left Long Island City at 4:34 and 5:32 P.M. and returned from OysterBay at 7:20 and 8:17 A.M. After 1909 there was an extra Wednesday trainanda Saturday midnight theatre train. On the big holidays—July 4th and Labor Day—two-section trains appeared, oneallparlor car and oneallday coach. Interestingly, down to as late as 1908, it was customary to run some Oyster Bay trains over the Hemp- steadBranch to GardenCity and thenover the northwest quadrant out at HempsteadCrossing to Mineola. In 1901 halfthe OysterBay trains ran via GardenCity but by 1909 this routing hadbeen abandoned. The Long Island R.R. operatedits Soundsteamboats to landingsat SeaCliff, Glenwoodand Roslyn, but this service no longer paid after 1914 and WorldWar I ended it. The Long Beach Branch was completely transformedin the first dec- adeof the century. Long Beach in 1900 consistedof onebig hotel and a satellite string of 19 oceanfrontcottages. On the bay side there were a few fishing stations that came alive in summer and sometimesoffered minimal overnight accommodations. The Long Island R.R. offered a summer service of 14 to 16 trainsa dayeach waythrough to New York or Brooklynplus one or two shuttle trains to Lynbrook on the Montauk Branch. The service usually began with Decoration Day and ended about Oct. 1. As the communities along the Long Beach Branch grew slowly, the completelack ofwinter serviceproved ahardship, and in the summer of 1907,a few residents ofEast Rockaway andOceanside peti- tionedthe Public ServiceCommission to order year-round trainservice. The result was that, beginning with the winter timetable on Oct. 25, 1909 the Long Island R.R. put on four trainsa day to run all winter. In 1907-1908 ex-Senator Reynoldsand a group of investors acquired con- trol ofLong Beachand completely transformed the property. The con- tours of the islandwereradically altered by dredging and filling, streets were laid out, resort hotels built and private housing encouraged. The result ofall this intensivedevelopment createda substantial year-round population and a large summer business. By 1914 Long Beach had 22 daily trains each way in summer on a 41 mm. schedule and on the Fourth of July and Labor Day, holiday crowds jammed long special trains to the newly fashionable resort. Long Beach had joinedRocka- way andConey Island as thelatest seaside attraction forNew Yorkers. The beach traffic toLong Beach, however, wasas nothing compared to the enormous business of the Rockaways. An almost uninhabited peninsula in 1870, Rockaway had developedrapidly in the 1880's once it became accessible to the city, andby 1900 the whole peninsula had growninto a succession of villages that extended end on end for four miles. RockawayBeach and Far Rockaway formed the two ends,with Edgemere, Arverne, Hammels, Playland and Seaside sandwiched in between. Sections ofboardwalk sprang up in the 90'sand on the side streets countless summer hotels, boarding housesand family cottages grew up tomeet thedemand for summer housing. Along theboardwalk was an endless succession of beer halls, saloons, amusement palaces, bath houses, stage shows and fast food shops thatcatered to the public hunger for food and entertainment. Beginning in June and continuing until almost October, uncounted throngs of sweltering New Yorkers and Brooklynites sought out Rockaway as a refuge from the heat and confinement and decorumof the city. Access to the Rockawaypeninsu- la untilWorldWar I was solely by rail unless one wanted to makea 30- mile roundabout journey via Jamaica, and Springfield around Jamaica Bay. The cross-bay trestle had been built in 1880 and by thisslender path, an almost unimaginable traffic was moved into and out of the peninsula each weekendof the summer months and almost asmuch on weekdays by the railroad. Over this same route the Brooklyn Rapid Transit movedits own trains to Rockawaybyagreement with the Long Island R.R. (1898-1917). In addition to thiscross-bay traffic, the Long Islandoperated trainsvia theFar Rockaway Branch. Incredibly,all this traffic movedon only three tracks throughout thisperiod. Addingto the train movementproblemwas the fact that the stations on the peninsula were so close together that a long traincouldeasily straddle twostations at once. In 1904 the railroad laid down a third track for the exclusive use oftrolleycars between Hammels andFar Rockaway. In the spring- time the railroad operated about 17 trainsdaily each way onweekdays and 25 onSundaysvia the bayand asimilar number viaFar Rockaway. During July and August 25 to 30 trains ran on weekdays and 50 or more on Sundays. The Brooklyn Rapid Transit normally began operating its daily Broadway Ferry—Rockaway service on June Ist and continued till Labor Day. There was a 15-minuteheadway on weekdays and 10 on Sundays. The changeover from steam toelectric operation was made in 1906. The Long Island R.R. made its own changeover from steam to electric in 1905 and the fact that the RockawayBranch was the first to be electrified was a tributeto the paramount importance of the Rocka- waylineand that it commanded first priority in the thinking ofthe rail- road. Electric trains to the Rockaways during the first six seasons ran only out of Brooklyn, but with the completion of the Glendale cut-off electric trains from Perm Station alsobegan to serve the Rockaways. Thenext important change came in 1908. TheBRT trains from the Broadway Ferry had given good service, but owing to the extra cost of the ferriesand the loss of time, the trainswerenotpatronized very heav- ily byNew Yorkers. To improvepatronage from thissource, the BRT strengthened the Broadway elevated structure towithstand the running ofheavy Long Island R.R. motor trainsover it, and insteadof terminat- ing at the ferry, service was extendedover the WilliamsburghBridge to Delancey Street in Manhattan. This new service to Rockaway opened on DecorationDay 1908and the trainscovered thewholedistance in 47 mins. running time. On Aug. 4, 1913 the New York terminus was moved to ChambersStreet. The Long Island R.R. used its MP-41 class motor cars with the old side-doorwooden trailers. This joint operation of the Long Island R.R. with the BRT proved unprofitable, and after the summer of 1917, the interline operation was abandoned and never resumed. Trainmovements on the Rockawaypeninsula were unique and dif- ferent from anywhere elseon the railroad. On the same four miles of tracksteam trains fromLong Island City, electric trains fromBrooklyn, steam trains from the BRT, electric trains from the Far Rockaway Branch and trolley cars of the Ocean ElectricRy. all operated simulta- neously onebehind the other, a situation thatwould appall any regula- tory body today, yet in all these years there was never an accident or any loss of life. On the greatholidays and duringheat waves trains became so fre- quent and streamed in from somany directions at once that operation becamea nightmare anda source of nervous tension for the dispatcher. Milling, turbulent crowds thronged the platforms of stations and the scenes of jostling andmad stampeding for seats became the subject of feature articles the next day in the city papers. Only at Rockaway was the Long Island compelled to resort to the extreme expedientofherding passengers in bull pens, heavy wooden stockades whose stout timbers forced a semblanceof orderly train loading on thewild crowdsofcrying children, fear-maddenedwomen andcursing men, manyof them drunk and spoiling fora brawl. The press of the day printed graphicdescrip- tions ofRockaway weekends: "Thecrowds of excursionists which spent yesterday at Rocka- way was a record breaker, the police estimating the number at 75,000. The heat in the city caused a great exodus to nearby resorts and Rockaway Beach got its share. The Long Island R.R. found itself unable tocarry all those who desired togo to the beach, and early in the day the schedule was abandoned and trains ran between the beach and Brooklyn at short inter- vals. A number of trains from the BRT had tobe pressed into service on the Long Island City Branch; the BRT ran on five- minute headway but even thencouldscarcely carry the crowds. Nine trolleycars were run on the four-mile stretch between the Park andFar Rockaway and thousandsofpeople werebrought downby thatroute. The steamboatswere thronged on each trip while the crowds were increased by driving and automobiling parties. Onecontinuous lineoftrains reachedall the way across the trestle andwhen the homewardrush came, the crush at all stations wasbeyond the control of the officers. Seventy-two trains each way averaging nine cars each were run from Brooklyn and Long Island City to Rockaway and they carried 50,000 people to and from the beach. Seventy-two trains offivecars eachwererun each wayby the BRT from the Broadway Ferry to Rockaway, carrying 25,000 each way. The Ocean Electric carried 16,000 and 25,000 came by the boats, making more than 110,000 in all. The steamer "Chester W. Chapin" brought 1084 to Rockaway and Manhattan Beach from New Haven, docking at Long Island City; the "William G. Payne" brought 500 from Bridgeport to Long Island City for Rockaway and Manhattan Beach." Eagle, July 27, 1903 "Yesterdayon July 12th the BRT andLIRR jointlyran 91 six- car trainsover Broadway from the ferryand bridge to Rocka- way Beach,carrying 25,000people. All the other trains from Flatbush Avenue and Long Island City carried 10 cars each. The Broadway trains ran three minutes apart in the rush hour." July 13, 1908 "Yesterday'sbeach trafficbrokeallrecords. Trains wererun on the trestle under a four-minute headway. It is estimated that 224,000 passengers were carried in each direction of which 40,000 came fromBrooklyn. Fifteen extra trainswererun from the Perm Station." Eagle, July 3, 1911 The otherbeach resort served by the Long Island R.R.—Manhattan Beach—was already in its declineby 1900, the goldenprosperityof the 80's and especially the 90's havingbeen erodedby the rise ofBrighton BeachandConey Island. Muchof the traffic to the Manhattan and Ori- ental Hotels hadbeen stolenawayby the BrooklynRapid Transit trains and the übiquitoustrolleycars; forseveral yearsmore AustinCorbin, as owner ofManhattan Beach, used hisposition as president of the Long Island R.R. togive the place a service in excess of the actual demand. The PennsylvaniaRailroad, as newowner of the Long IslandR.R., had nosuch personal interest in theresort andcut the service tomorerealis- tic levels.During the wintermonths four trainsa day servedManhattan Beach but in the summer time, this was increased to eleven or twelve trains each way on weekdays. Between 1901 and 1908 as many as 25,000persons cameby train to Manhattan Beach on Sundays, many of them toattend the racesat SheepsheadBay and Brighton Beach tracks. Many otherswho boarded the cars at Long Island City wereexcursion- ists brought down byboat fromNew Haven, Bridgeport and Norwalk. After 1909when the race tracks were closed, the traffic fell sharply and by 1913 there were only four weekday trains and two on Sundays. In 1911 theManhattan Beach Hotelwas torndown and in 1916 theOrien- tal followed; trainservice shrank to three aday from 1918 to 1921, two after 1921 and complete abandonment followed in 1924. TheFar Rockaway Branch running fromValley Stream through to Far Rockaway and Arverne serveda numberof small residential com- munities that furnished a slowly increasing traffic throughout the year. In 1901-02 seven trains a day each way onweekdays was sufficient to handle the traffic; by 1904, this had increased toeleven and after 1907, 15 to 17 trains was the norm. Real estateactivity in Woodmere, Cedar- hurst andLawrence flourished in the yearsbeforeWorld War I and this accounted for a steady rise in the numberof commuters. TheHempstead Branch retained single track down to 1918 and had only two stations of consequence, Garden City and Hempstead; up to 1908 some Oyster Bay trains used the branch and stopped at Garden City. Hempstead for most of the period before World War I had 15 trainsa day,a third ofthem running viaMineola. TheWest Hempstead Branchhad a steam service of 4 or 5 trainsa dayonly until 1913; there- after two battery cars gave a sort of trolley service on this lightly- patronized branch. An informal station was maintained at Hempstead Crossing as a transfer point for passengers between West Hempstead and Hempstead Branches because there was no station at the actual junctionat Country Life Press until 1913. The battery cars made addi- tional stopsafter 1913 at Doubleday's to pick up plant workers and at Franklin Avenue. Service over the West Hempstead Branch from the Montauk Division was limitedduring the first years toone orat most two trains a day; in 1913 the railroad changed its policy and began to run six to eight through trainsa dayvia the Montauk Division. OnOct. 19, 1926 the first electric trainsbeganrunning over the West Hempstead Branch, displacing the two battery cars. TheNorth Shore Branchwas perhaps the only division on the Long Island R.R. on which service diminishedover the years; at the turn of the century therewere 30 trains to Whitestone Landing and 23 to Port Washington butby 1914, the WhitestoneLanding servicehad fallento 24 and the Port Washingtonhad remained unchanged.Trolley and sub- waycompetition had eaten into the inner-city revenues; fortunately, the Port Washington line gained suburbanriders in Great Neck, Manhasset and Plandomewhichcompensated for heavy losses in Elmhurst, Coro- na andFlushing. For years it hadbeen customary to break someof the trainsat the meadows junctionwhere the Whitestonecars wereuncoup- led. Beginning in June 1916 the trains were broken at Corona station instead to save time and delay. The Atlantic Branch with its eight local stations between Jamaica and FlatbushAvenue was, in the yearsbefore WorldWar I, abusy and importantpart of the railroad. Thelocal service, variously called"rapid transit" and "suburban" served the rapidly developing communitiesof Cypress Hills, Woodhaven and Morris Parkand catered toa growing numberofcommuters. When the IRT subwayopened to AtlanticAve- nue in May 1908, the AtlanticBranch traffic doubledovernight. Much of the traffic thathad formerly gone to Long Island City and the ferries changed over to Brooklynand serious crowding resulted. The railroad had previouslybeen in thehabit ofholding theBrooklyn trainin Jamai- ca station until two or three steam trains had discharged their passen- gers. Now, it became apparent that with the tide of travel diverted to Brooklyn, the electric trains quickly overloaded. Even after the Perm Stationopened, twiceasmanypeople rode to Brooklyn as to NewYork. An investigation into complaints ofpersistent overcrowding by the Pub- lic ServiceCommissionin 1912 revealed that therewereregularly 500to 700 standees in the morningand evening rush hour. Because the sched- ule was tootight already toadd additional trains, the railroadagreed to run longertrains of seven cars. Unhappily, this exceeded the lengthof all the stationplatforms bothat Jamaicaand at Flatbush Avenue. When this remedy proved inadequate,the Public ServiceCommissionordered eight, nineand ten cartrains butat FlatbushAvenue peoplehad towalk through thecars tounload. In August 1914 inspectors from the Public ServiceCommission found that 1200 to 1500 people were still crowded onto one trainwith 100to284 standees. The commission thenprevailed on the railroad to withdraw the smaller MP-41 cars and to substitute the newerand longer carsholding 72 personsseated. Therailroad went into WorldWar I with the crowdingproblem defyingany solution. The embarrassing fact was that the new Flatbush Avenue station, just opened in 1907,was already too small toaccommodate longtrains. Fur- thermore, the stationhad been built to accommodate smaller cars and the wooden trailers; the much longer and higher MP-54 class cars experienced difficulty with the tightclearances and sharp turns in the underground terminal. The opening of the Hunters Point Avenue station in 1914 relieved very slightly the pressureon the Flatbush Avenue station, but it was not until the opening of the 7th Avenue IRTline in 1919 and the general movement ofbusinessuptown inNew York that thePerm Station began to draw the bulk of the passenger traffic. Few people are aware today that there was once a direct passenger train service between the Flatbush Avenue station and Perm Station. When the Pennsylvania Railroad had its New York terminal in Jersey City, it had for years operated a ferry service between Jersey City and Fulton Street, Brooklyn, for the convenience of Brooklyn patrons. When the Perm Stationwas about to open in September 1910, the rail- road discontinued the ferry. Brooklyn organizations complained that they were losing an important convenience and extracted from the Pennsylvania Railroad a promise that trains would run from Flatbush Avenue station direct to Perm Station tocompensate for the shutdown of the ferry service. The shuttle train began operatingaspromised with 13trips a dayand at a 35

hinnecock Nassau Quaker City iagamore vlontauk II (Queen Caroline) 1885 1886 1891 1892 1893 1896 1896 1898 1901 built 1901 1902 ) rebuilt 1901 iron paddle wheel 252.5 iron paddle wheel 175 iron paddle wheel 175 steel screw 155.6 steel screw 132.5 wood paddle wheel 142.6 accommodated 1200 pass.; speed 16MPH steel paddle wheel 234 had 84 state rooms wood screw 133 steel screw 155.5 steel screw 155.5 length steel screw 193 accommodated 750 pass, speed 16-18 knots. wereoverhauled. Previously, therehadbeen a superintendentof floating equipment to handleall marine operations; in April 1900 the road abol- ished thisposition and set up theMarine Department, divided into four separate operating units: 1. The Montauk Steamship Company steamboats 2. The Riverand HarborTransportation tugboats, floats Company (dissolved Mar. 1, 1914) 3. TheLong Island Ferry Company East River ferries 4. Long Island Marine Repair Shops Whitestone repair facility The fourthunit was the newest and the need forit had been growing, especially since the purchase of the Montauk Steamboat Company. Both the Pennsylvaniaand theLong Island Railroads wanted asite that was close to the East River so that the ferries and tugs couldberegular- ly serviced, yet not too costly to acquire or likely to be threatenedby commercial developments. The ideal site was found in Whitestone Landing where the railroad already owned a 200-foot frontage on the waterfront; the spot was within tenmiles of the Long Island City termi- nal, was situated in asemi-rural areaand couldbe expanded if necessa- ry. In May 1904 the railroad began the construction of an immense dock out into the East River, 383 feet longandat its end, a "T" 100 feet long. A trackwas designed to run the length of the pier. This dockwas erected to serve as a landing place for all the floating property of the railroad when in need ofrepair. Directly behind the dock the company built one of the largest marine repair shops; it was ofbrick, 340X 110 feet, two and a half stories high. A siding was laid from the main track which ran through the center of the building and out onto the pier. The railroad was even considering for a while buying another 90 acres of shore landand building another large dockat which boats of the Montauk Co. couldlandpassengers and then transfer them to wait- ing trains for New York. This failed ofrealization, however. By mid- April 1905 the great shops for forge works and shipbuildingand the ship railways werewell underway. The railroad could now service the large Montauk fleet, the three Annex steamboats, the ordinary ferry boats, barges and tugs in its own shops. The big Whitestone facilitywas opened on July 1, 1905 at a cost of over $100,000. One might assume that when the Pennsylvania Railroad absorbed the Long Island in 1900with the express purpose ofphysically linking up the tworoadsby meansofa tunnel, the ferries would have begun to suffer neglect and disinterest. Such was not the case. Even though the Pennsylvaniahad committed itself explicitly to a tunnelby late 1901, it seemed torealize that so momentous a piece of constructionwould not be the work of a year or even of a few years, but rather the effort of almost a decade. During that time a constantly growingpassenger and freight traffic over the East Riverwould have to be not onlymaintained but expanded and increased to apeak of efficiency. This was the reason why the ferry and steamboat traffic reached its peak in the very years that the tunnels werebeing bored, 1902 to 1910. In the spring of 1903 the Long Island Rail Road greatly enlarged its waiting rooms on thesouth sideofEast 34thStreet, New York, and 200 feet east ofFirst Avenue. An extension,one story highandbrick and 42 X 131 wasadded tothe existing structure, making the waitingroom 117 X 197 and extending from 34th to 33rd Streets. Two years later in 1905 the railroad upgraded the three slips them- selves. The old sheds that covered the ferry slips were torn down and four newmodern slips with bridges were put under construction along with a large new ferry building to cover all four slips, 400X 170, and extending from 33rd to 35th Streets. The bridges were an innovation; not onlywere they themost solid in the metropolitanarea but theywere the first tobe raised and lowered entirely by electricity and would no longermove up and down with the tidesby floats as hadbeen the cus- tom. All the workwas completed in October 1905 at a cost of $64,096. Thenext stepwas to overhaulandput in thoroughrepair the piers on the Long Island City side of the river. Sixty thousand dollars were earmarked for this project. The whole modernization on both sides of theriver wouldenable therailroad toinauguratea five-minuteferry ser- vice. TheLong Island City improvements were completed by Dec. 1, 1905. In June 1906 the Long Island Rail Road added two new steel car floatscapableofcarrying 22 cars each andcostingabout $45,000 apiece. In March 1908 the railroad found it necessary to dredge out the Long Island City slipsbecause of the tunnelwork just to the south. The compressedair escaping from the four tubeshad formonths forced the mud and silt shoreward and the accumulation wasbecoming a menace to the ferryboats at low tide. The water alongside the Annexdock, the southernmostslip, had alwaysbeen 17 feetdeep at low tide butby 1908, a mud bank had formed. A big dredge was put to work on Mar. 30, 1908in the center slip to clear out the bottom. Theferry business reached its peak in 1905with the purchase by the Long Island R.R. of two newdouble-end, steel, screw propeller ferry- boats, the "Babylon"and the"Hempstead" for the 34thStreet ferry ser- vice. These were ordered in September 1905 fromHarlan & Hollings- worth and were intended to match the best and newest boats in the Hudson River service, being nonsinkable and fireproof. They were 188V4 feet long, 17 feet longer than the 35-year oldveteran "Garden City" then in use. Thepassenger accommodations werealso doublethe oldboats. Delivery was set for June 1, 1906 but they actually arrived in July. Thegreat daysof the East River ferry trafficwerenumbered,howev- er, forwithina six-yearperiod, threenew bridges openedand these soon began to cut sharply into the team traffic thatwas the lifeblood of the ferries.The WilliamsburghBridgeopened in December 1903; the Man- hattanBridge roadways openedDec. 31, 1909and onMar. 30, 1909 the Queensborough Bridge began to carry vehicles and pedestrians. The first contractionin the system came in 1907 when the Long Island R.R. decided to close the James Slip ferry. The ostensible reason was that extensive waterfront improvements being carried out along the East River waterfront by the city between the Battery and Grand Street, involved thetearingaway of the JamesSlip piers to makeway for a con- crete sea wall all along South Street. There was a good deal of protest frommanufacturinginterests in Long Island and Greenpoint who sent teams over the ferry to reach downtown Manhattan. May 11 was to have been the last run but the servicewas grudginglycontinued for the summer months and finally closed downon Oct. 1, 1907. In February 1908 the railroad withdrew from service the two new doubledeck ferryboats, the "Babylon" and the "Hempstead" after less than two years. They had cost more to operate than the old-style boats, were longerand heavier and theirdouble decks had neverbeen put to use since no two-story ferry terminal had been built. The residents of Flushing carried a protest to the Public Service Commission, claiming that the smaller "GardenCity" was the onlyboat on the 34thStreet ser- vice and thatonly one boat was running on the WallStreet Annexline. The railroad explained that the openingof the IRTsubway to Brooklyn had caused a change in the tide of travel, nearly all the commuters except those on the North Shore Branch taking the Brooklynroute, and for thatreason oneboat hadbeenwithdrawn from the Annexservice. A year later the Long Island R.R. proposed to withdraw even this last boat, the "Sagamore", from the Wall Street route as of Oct. 1, 1908. The situationwas already bad for trucks, for the JamesSlip servicehad been the last toaccommodate them, while the "Sagamore", a passenger steamer, couldcarrycommuters only. The service did notpay and dur- ing 1908 only twotripswere made in the morning and threein the after- noon. If the Annex boat stopped, the effect would be thatpassengers would no longer have any means ofreaching any point in Manhattan southof 34th Street in contrast topassengers on the Erie, Lackawanna and Jersey Centralwho enjoyed frequentferry service to downtown. Theroad was summoned toahearing before thePublic ServiceCom- missionon Sept. 11, 1908at which the railroad testified that the Annex servicehadbeen running for ten yearsand in all that timehad not yield- ed a profit. In 1906 the loss had been $40,000 and in 1907, $45,000; in the current year 1908, the boat during August averaged only 250 pas- sengers. The road had reached the point where it could no longer run trains orboats at a loss. The commuters countered that theferry didn't pay because the service was not frequent enough and often irregular. The PublicService Commission did not see fit to interfere and on the evening of Sept. 30, 1908, the last Wall Streetrun was made. TheLong Island R.R. was not the only one tocurtail ferry service. The PennsylvaniaRailroad hinted that it was considering abolishing its own Annexboats between Fulton Street,Brooklyn, and Jersey City ter- minal. On Nov. 30, 1910 the Pennsylvania Railroad discontinued its boats over the strongprotestsofbusinesshouses whohadbeen using the route for their trucksand automobiles. Therapid disappearance of the railroad ferriescreated some anxiety about the fateof the 34thStreet runbut thecompanyassured the public thatit would not suspend service, provided the city tookinto considera- tion the drastic loss of traffic that would follow the opening of the QueensboroughBridgeand the Perm Tunnels andpossibly theSteinway Tunnel. The railroadhad beenpaying the city $12,000 ayearand if this were scaled down, the railroadwould continue hauling the truck traffic of the Long Island City manufacturingplants. Over the summer of 1910 the railroad, in order to decide what to do with the ferry, closely observed the volume of team traffic; it was found that thevolume was great enough torequireboats running at ten-min- ute intervals. This was practically the same service then being offered except in rush hour. The team traffic, ofcourse, would not be in the least affected by the openingofthe tunnels,and, as the Long Island City factory business increased, it was bound toexpand. Nevertheless, a few changes marked the passing ofan era. On Oct. 20, 1910 the old James Slip ferry houseat the foot ofBorden Avenue, Long Island City, built by the East River Ferry Company in the 70's, was demolished; in thespringof 1910 the railroad sold theold ferryboat "Rockaway" and leased out three other old boats to other companies; the "Sag Harbor" was sold off in 1911. In December 1910 the City of New York chartered the newestboats, the "Babylon" and the "Hemp- stead" for service on the 39th Street, Brooklyn, line. Later, both boats were sold by the railroad to the Public Service Gas & Electric Co. of New Jersey, where they became the "Tenafly" and the "Hackensack." By 1911 the passenger traffic-on the ferry hr.d fallen offconsiderably since trolley cars were now operating over the QueensboroughBridge. Another complaint to the Public Service Commission brought out the fact thatraising and lowering the old wooden ferrybridges in the Long IslandCity slips was causing delays; the railroadmoved two ofthe elec- trically operated ones from the Manhattan side. At the hearing some commuters charged that the railroad deliberately kept the train and boat schedules uncoordinated to force people to the Perm Station route whichearned the railroad 95c a month more. An inspector confirmed that boats often arrived late for a train orpulled out just before a train- load ofcommuters was due to arrive. With the decline of the ferry business the Long Island R.R. sold off the old "Flushing" in 1912 and the "Long Beach" in 1913. The last knowninvestment in the ferry servicewas in 1912 when a newwaiting room and ticket office was completed at East 34thStreet to replace the one destroyed by the tunnel excavators. As apoint ofhistorical interest, the 34th Street ferry lasted far longer than anyone expected; the old route was not shut down until Mar. 3, 1925 when the old "Southamp- ton"made the last run. A private operator, W. E.McGurk, founderof the YellowTaxi service, tookover from the Long Island R.R.; two new boats, the "MountHope"and the "Mount Holly" continued theservice for a few more years. In contrast to the ferryboats which had passed their peak by 1900, the steamboatbusinessof the MontaukSteamboat Companyboomed in the decadebefore World War I. In thisgolden ageof excursion service the Montauk Steamboat Co. operated threeroutes: 1. Pier 13, East River, (between Wall Street & Old Slip) to Orient, Greenport, Shelter Island, Sag Harbor andBlock Island 2. Pier 13and Great Neck, Glen Cove, SeaCliff, Glenwoodand Ros- lyn. Thisservice began in 1901 3. Locally between Sag Harbor, Greenport, Orient and New London Although the Long Island R.R. startedwithonly the "Shinnecock"and the "Montauk" in 1898,other boats werequickly acquired to produce a large fleet. In 1901 the Long Island R.R. purchased the Long Island & New England Steamboat Company and transferred its assets to the Montauk SteamboatCo. This company had maintained a line between Sag Harbor, Greenport,Orient andNew London fora number of years until its boat, the "Manhanset" was taken over by theMontauk Co. The "Manhanset" was now sold off and a newer boat, the wooden steamer "Hingham" was bought for $32,500 and put on its route; the boat's name was changed to "Orient" and its hull lengthened 25 feet to increase her capacity. The "Montauk", the sister ship of the "Shin- necock" was than takenoff from the New York-Greenport-SagHarbor route and sold to the AlgomaRailroad ofOntario. Another ironpaddle- wheel ship, the "City ofLawrence" was chartered to run on alternate dayswith the "Shinnecock"; this boat was almost two and ahalf times the size of the "Montauk", had more capacity and was faster. Also in 1901 the road purchased theold "Nantasket" for $32,000 forpassenger servicebetween New Yorkand the North Shore villages,and the freight steamer "Meteor" for $20,000 toalternate with the "Nantasket." In 1903 the old paddle-wheelboat "Greenport" was purchased for service between Sag Harbor and Greenport; it had formerly been the "Sagadahoc"of the Eastern SteamshipCompany runningbetween Bos- tonandBath, Me. andwas260 feet long, it couldcarry 1800passengers, had 160 staterooms and couldgo 16 MPH. In 1904 the "QuakerCity" was bought as a ferryboat for Wall Street-long Island City traffic, but was sold in 1905. In 1902 the Long Island R.R. bought for the first time abrand-new steelboat, the "Sagamore" at a cost of $50,899 as an addi- tional ferryboat between Wall Street and Long Island City. In 1903 the Montauk Co. secured thecontract from the United States government for carrying the mails between New London, Greenport, Sag Harbor, Plum Island and Fisher's Island. There were at that time about 500 soldiers and other employees at Fort Terry and the 13th Regiment of Brooklyn wasalso slated to train thereduring the summer months. The mail route was 41 miles long and the trip took about three hours each way. The "Sag Harbor" and the "Meteor" were assigned to alternate runs. —Eagle, Apr. 11, 1903 6:1 The year 1905marked thelast year that the Long Island R.R. bought new vessels. The "Wyandotte", bought to take the place of the unsatis- factory "QuakerCity", waspurchased inDetroit, Mich. Thiswas a sin- gle-screw steel doubledeck boat, largeenough tocarry 1000 peopleand with a speed of 17 MPH. Itran under its own power all the way from Detroit via the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, arriving in New York on June 8, 1905 andwas put in service on the Annex run out of Wall Street. In May the road bought for $125,000 the large excursion steamer "Queen Caroline" from the Cape AnnR.R. where it had been running between Cape May, N.J. and Lewes, Del. The "Queen Caro- line"was only three yearsold, 210 feet long,all steeland couldmake 18 MPH andwaspurchasedexpressly for the Greenport-BlockIsland-Fort Pond Bay service. TheLong Island R.R. renamed her the "Montauk II". The newboat left Greenport dailyat about 8 A.M. shortly after the arrival of the steamers "Shinnecock" or "Greenport" which ran alter- nately overnight from New York. The steamer then made the run to Block Island in an hour and a half. She returned immediately from Block Island to Montauk in time to meet a fast express from NewYork and Brooklynat 1:30 P.M. After taking this group to Block Island, the boatreturned to Greenport in the lateafternoon in time tocatch anoth- er fast express for New York. This service competed with the New Haven's Shore Line Divisionwhich took five hours for the Block Island run from New York via Providence, R.I. It is sad to record that the servicegiven by these sleekand beautiful boats was run at a loss almost every year. The Montauk Steamboat Company lost money in 1905, $21,085 in 1907, $38,508 in 1908 "due to competition of other lines and a decrease in the excursion business"; $15,468 in 1909, $11,375 in 1910. After 1911 the ferrybusiness fellaway to nothing and the railroad was better able to withstand the small loss on the excursion boats. One sign of the times came as early as 1909 when the railroadcut back the full daily serviceusually given until Nov- ember to Labor Day, leavingonly oneboat on the New York run and one forall thelocal East End runs. InMarch 1916 the "Sagamore"was sold off. However, the railroadwas unwilling to sacrificecompletely the east- ern Long Island excursion business and the "Wyandotte" and the "Shinnecock" continued running until 1927 when the Rail Road sold offthe White fleet. About 1914 the Navigation Laws were revised with stricterprovisions on the size ofcrews and the equipment required for them. This plus an increase in wagesand high costs of fuel made the boat business expensive and unprofitable. On topof that a newFederal regulation called thePanama Actprohibited railroads fromowning and operating steamboats unless especially permitted todo soby the Inter- state CommerceCommission. Local companies that had foryears domi- nated theNorth Shore service to Roslyn, Glen Headand SeaCliffbegan to go out ofbusiness; the Long Island R.R. inherited the businessand continued the service to 1915 and then abandoned it. 1916 proved the last season for the Block Island service. Thechanging economic conditions that drove the boats out ofbusi- ness were welldescribed in an article in June 1916: "This year for the first timein the memoryof the oldest inhabi- tant, there are no boats running regularly between any of the North Shore villages ofLong Island and New York City. The Long Island R.R. has discontinued the running of its boats on the Glen Cove, Sea Cliff route, the steamboats "Huntington" and "Northport" have both been sold and the two routes have been givenup. Nor is therea single sailing vessel runningregu- larly between any of the villages and New York. Such a condi- tion has not existed before in a century. It is a misfortune but is the result of causes for which thereis noapparent remedy. The big auto trucks have takenover somuch ofthe freightcarrying business that they have seriouslycut into the businessnot only of the steamboatsbut into the receipts of the Long Island R.R. as well. Thesailing packets which40 or 50 years ago used to take down from the Huntington Harbor docks every fall between twoand three thousandbarrels ofpotatoes, applesand turnips every week and thousands of bales of hay have been forced to retire because of the general giving-up of old-fash- ioned farming on the North Shore andmiddle ofLong Island. Many of the farms have been sold to wealthy men who have converted them into beautiful estatesand who are permitting thousands of acres to lie idle and growup into a wilderness. Other tracts have been converted into market gardens and truck farms, theproducts ofwhichare taken to thecity in farm motor trucks in three hours over the improved highways of western Suffolk and Nassau and Queens Counties." Long Islander, Jun. 2, 1916 A few facts about theoperation of the boats and the men who ran them have come down to us. Theservice between NewYork and Green- port was an overnight one, the boats takingabout 19hours tomake the 120 mile trip; this gave a speed of about 17 MPH. Theseason usually was a longone, theboats starting theirruns in April and endingin Nov- ember. Some boats wintered in Greenport Harbor, others at Whites- tone. Thedeck officers woreNavy blueuniformswith goldbraid and a gold star forevery ten years of service. The headof the Montauk Com- pany used the title of captain on formal occasions; from 1898 to 1906 the head of the fleet wasDavid Van Cleaf, who resigned in April 1906. Henry L. Dcs Anges was appointed to his place; he was then 44 years old and had an extensive railroad background. He had worked as a shopman for the Pennsylvania Railroad but had studied mechanical engineeringat night andwon a diploma fromCooper Union.For three yearshe worked for the W. R. Grace Steamship Lines on theirrailroad interests in Peru. Returning to the United States in 1889, he supervised the installation ofcompoundengines on ferryboats for the Pennsylvania R.R. In April 1900 he took chargeof the ferry operations of the Long Island Rail Road, and in 1902 of the River & Harbor Transportation Co., the subsidiaryoperating tugs and lighters. In 1915 Mr. Dcs Anges becamesuperintendent ofthewholeMarine Division whichhe managed until hisretirement in 1932. Most eminent ofall the operating personnel in the Long Island R.R. "Navy" was Capt. Andrew P. Sanden. Born in Stockholm in 1830, he came to New York in 1850 and entered the service of the East River Ferry Co.;he operated the first ferry boattoLong Island Citywhen that service began on Apr. 20, 1854.From that date to Nov. 22, 1901 Capt Sanden continuedas a pilot on theboats of the companies. Heneverhad an accidentand was the only man trusted to run a boat through dense fog and heavy ice jams. Pennsylvania Railroad rules forced his retire- mentat 70after which hebecame a starter at Long Island City. At his funeral on May 18, 1909, all boats stopped runningat 2 P.M for five minutes, a rare honor accorded previously only toPresidents Baldwin and Potter and never afterwards. As with the operation of the railroad, so the Long Island R.R. marine operations had theiroccasional mishaps: 1900 Nov. 20: The "Sag Harbor" rammed by three-masted schooner whose bowsprit ripped away the women's cabin, roof and pilot house. 1904 Nov. 4: The "Garden City" hits Catharine St. ferryboat "Som- erset" in densefog. Bothboats had stoppedandmerely bumped each other. Damage minor. The "Garden City" had already bumped into a float, a barge and a steamboat on the same trip! 1905 May 19: The "Rockaway" runs into the "Nassau" outsideLong Island City slips during high wind and heavy tide. Somedamage to each. July 3: The "Long Beach" is struck in its paddle box by the Grand St. ferryboat "Virginia". Slight damage. July 8: The port shaft of the "Manhattan Beach" broke in midstream on way to 34th St. The shaft, nearly a foot thick,snapped with aloud report which shook the boat from stem to stern. The vessel managed to make the Manhattan shore. Oct. 15: The "Hudson City" with 1000 passengers aboard crashes into the bulkhead at the 34th Street slip with such forceas to fling all the passengersinto a heap. No injuries. 1906 May 22: The "Garden City" is disabledin midstreamby aloos- ened bolt in the eccentricof one ofthe engines;drifted for an hour, and then towed by tugs "Montauk" & "Wrestler" to Long Island City. 1907 Feb. 11: The "Hudson City" rammed by the Sound freight steamer "JohnH. Starin"of theNewHaven line. Some of the railing and a section of the women's cabin demolished. No injuries but much panic. Mar. 13: The "Hempstead" in a dense fog ran into the "Flush- ing" in Long IslandCity slip while the latter was dis- charging passengers. Superstructure of both boats damaged and both boats put out of commission. 1908 Mar. 20: The "Long Beach" entered the Long Island City slip under full headway. Shock caused boat to rebound; passengers thrown in heap; twopersons badly injured, manycut &bruised. Boat had tobe sent toWhitestone to rebuildbow damage. 1909 Aug. 12: Fire flared up in the "Nantasket" as she was making her first stop at Great Neck. Some passengers were frightened and took the train home. Veryslight dam- age and no explanation for fire released to press. CHAPTER XVII Fares and Fare Structure THE variety of tickets available to the commuter and casualtraveler of 75 yearsago is so muchgreater and sodifferent fromthat available today thata listing ofthe variousofferingsis nec- essary to an understanding of the fare structure. 1. Commutation;not just for 60 trips or amonthbut for3mos. 6 mos. or year 2. 10-trip ticket, mostly foruse east of Greenlawn,DeerPark &Baby- lon. 3. 20-trip ticket; may beused by buyer orany memberofhis family or servant 4. 50-trip ticket 5. 500-milebook; cost $10,average 2e a mile 6. 1000-milebook;cost $20; may be used by buyer or any member of his family or servant. Average 2c a mile.No fewer than threecouponsmight be used on any one ride. Individual tickets in the mileage book were about an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide. The conductorhad to knowcorrect distances to tear out the tickets accurately. A fraction ofamilecounted as one mile. Up to 1905 the most recent extensive revision of the passenger tariff on the Long Island R.R. had taken place in 1881 and relatively minor adjustments had been made since. After the Pennsylvania take-overof 1900, however, carefulaccounting ofexpenses and income revealed that the steadily rising level of wages andmaintenance had erodedthe rail- road's small profit margin and that the road was now carrying passen- gers, especiallycommuters, at a loss. The railroadat first tried to tighten up the regulations governing the use of some tickets in order to trim its losses. The first thing to be canceledwas the commercial traveler's tick- ets (January 1902).These had been sold for some years to commercial houses for the use of theirsalesmen. The tickets were good for two rides a day onanybranch of the road no matterhow long the distance. The tickets sold for$175 a year inadvance and were goodon the MainLine, Montauk andWading River Branches. The railroad next went to workon the commutation tickets. A regu- lation was issuedrequiring women commuters to prefixMissor Mrs. to their names. This requirement stirred up a hornet's nest of opposition and was viewed as an affront to women since nothing was said about men. The railroad defended itself by saying that commutations were supposed tobe used onlyby theperson inwhose name they werebought and thatmanypersonswere usingonly theirinitials inwhich case three or fourmembersof the same family rode on the same ticket. The next change was toinsure that all current commutation tickets would expire on the first of the month and notat some odd dateof the month. The notice explained the old and new practice: "Commencing on Jan. 1, 1903, all commutation and scholar's ticketswill be issued only fora fullmonth beginningon the first day. All personsholding tickets forany ofthe first fivemonths expiring during December 1902 will be issued a ticket for the remainder of thatmonth at pro rata of the next monthin the series, which ticket will be considered as a full month in the series. To those holding tickets from the 6th to the 11thmonth inclusive ofa series, a ticket will be issued pro rata as above mentioned, which ticket will not be considered as one of the yearly series. This gives the commuter the benefit of the reduc- tion allowed under the sliding monthly scaleof rates. To com- mutersholding the 12thmonthand thoseholding tickets for3, 6 and 12 months will be issued a ticket for the remainder of thatmonth at pro rata of 1/12of the yearly rate, which ticket will be considered one ofa newseries." The complicated wording of this notice becomes intelligible only if onebears inmind thatyearly commutation tickets were sold on a grad- uated scale, not on a flat rate permonth, i.e. a higher rate was charged for the first few months and a lesser rate for thelast few. Therailroad's reason for the change was that on crowded trains conductors were in practice unable to examine the dates of commutation tickets before reaching the first station at which passengers disembarked. By having all tickets expire on the first of the month, all that would be necessary would be to examine the month stamp on the faceof the ticket. The years 1903 and 1904 continued to showa loss and in 1905 the railroad determined on more drastic remedies. As of Jan. 1, 1905 the railroad discontinued the saleofall three, six or twelve month commu- tation ticketson the Port JeffersonBranch, the Main Line east of Med- ford and on the Montauk Branch east ofPatchogue. East End commut- ers would hereafter buy tickets by the single month. Theseplaces were about 55mileseast ofLong Island Cityandwere consideredas the limit of the suburban zone. On the sameday the railroadwithdrew theissuanceof 500-milemile- age books, leaving only the 1000-mile booksavailable; this eliminated all intervillage excursion tickets, also any excursion tickets except to the Long Island City or Flatbush Avenue terminus. The railroad dropped its real bomb shell on January 28thwhen printed notices were sent out to all commuters giving a table of a general advance in rates to take effect on and after Feb. 1. The increase was mainly in the commuter rateswhichwere to be increasedabout 20% and in some instances 30%. In some instances as on the Oyster Bay and North Shore Branches where a specialsingle and excursion rate were in forcebecauseof com- petition, that was done away with and the single rate was adjusted to correspond with that on other sectionsof theroad. A uniform rate of 31'\V. Called "horsepalace car" because it was used to transport the carriage horses of wealthy men to their summer estates on the island. Burned up in Long Island City yard fire of Aug. 20, 1910. 681-690 Builder &date unknown; 420 length; all scrapped proba- (old) bly 1908-09 or burned in L.I. City yard fireof Aug. 20, 1910. 682-691 American Car&Foundry 1910; 10steelbaggage cars; class (new) B-62 691 Jackson& Sharp 1875-79; length 51'H'; passenger car 34 was converted tobaggage car 691 on June 27, 1906. Dis- appearedbefore 1913. 675-678 Elevenmilk cars, all converted fromBox cars in Aug. 1915. 680-681 Fitted withinsulated interiors for transport ofmilk cans; had end doors. 671 from box 3333; scrapped Aug. 1929 672 from box 3350; toMX 254before 1922 673 from box 3352; toMW 241 before 1924 674 from box 3353; toMW 242 before 1924 675 from box 3354; scrapped about 1929 676 from box 3355; transferred to freightcar in 1928 677 frombox 3356; scrapped 1930-32. 678 frombox 3408; scrapped about 1930 680 frombox 3434; scrapped 1930-32 681 frombox 3260; scrapped 1929-32. 692-701 Pullman 1902; five 6-wheeled baggage cars; 678 length 692-698retired Oct. 1928 700 retiredMay 1928 699 retiredbefore 1913 701 retired Oct. 1928 702-705 PermR.R. 1907; four 6-wheeled baggage cars; 643 length; sold to LIRR 1907; all retired Dec. 1928. 706-714 PermR.R. 1908;nine 6-wheeled baggage cars; 643 length; sold to LIRR 1908; all retiredDec. 1928; the last wood- en cars on LIRR. Remarks: 1908- 15 baggage-express cars disposed of 1909- 13baggage-express cars broken up 1910- 5 baggage cars reported totally burned up in L.I. City yard fireof Aug. 20, 1910. Twocars "rebuildable". MAILCARS 721-724 Builder unknown 1883; four mail cars; 575 length 721 sold Feb. 1911; 111 retired Apr. 1915; 723-724sold Sept. 1909 725 Builder unknown 1884; 526 length;Retired Apr. 1915. 726-727 Bowers, Dure &Co. 1889; 680 726 sold Feb. 1912 727 sold Aug. 1910 728 Pullman 1890;648 length; sold Feb. 1912 729 Pullman 1890;575 length; sold May 1908 730 Pullman 1894; 682 length; sold toGeorgia Co. Aug. 1924 731-732 Ohio Falls Car Co. 1895;680 length 731 soldAug. 1910; 732 sold to GeorgiaCo. Aug. 1924 733 Pullman 1898;6810 length;sold toGeorgia Co. June 1927 734-735 Pullman 1902;679 length 734 sold to Georgia Co. Aug. 1924; 735 same June 1927 736 LIRR rebuilt 1906; sold to Georgia Co. Aug. 1924 737 Perm R.R. 1907;sold to LIRR 1907; retiredDec. 1928 738 PermR.R. 1908;sold to LIRR 1908; retiredDec. 1928 737 & 738 last wooden cars on LIRR along with 706-714. 739-743 American Car & Foundry 1911; five steel mail-baggage cars; monitor roof; class BM-62 744-747 American Car & Foundry 1914; four steel baggage-mail cars; monitor roof; class BM-62A Remarks: 1908- one baggage-mail car disposedof 1909- two baggage-mail cars broken up 1910- one mail car badly burned in L.I. City yard fire of Aug. 20, 1910 but rebuildable. PARLOR CARS 751-774 Pullman 1892; 24 parlor cars with 6-wheeled trucks; 585 length; 30 revolving seats. 751, 753, 755-769 retired before 1913 752, 754retiredbetween 1913 & 1915 770, 771, 773, 774 club cars 1913-1915; then converted to regular coaches sold to Georgia Car & Locomotive Co. Dec. 1925 772 converted to coach after 1915; then sold to Georgia Car& Locomotive in Dec. 1925 775-780 Pullman or Jackson & Sharp; date unknown; six 6-wheel parlor cars; 585 length; 30 revolving seats; all converted to coaches 1911- 1916. 776-778 scrapped before 1914 775 sold toGeorgiaCar& Locomotive Co. Dec. 1925 779 sold toGeorgiaCar& Locomotive Co. Dec. 1925 780 sold to GeorgiaCar& Locomotive Co. June 1927 781-788 Barney & Smith 1899; eight 6-wheeled parlor cars; ITT length; 45 revolving seats. All converted to coaches 1911-1916; all sold to Georgia Car & Locomotive Co. June 1927. 789-796 Pullman 1902; eight vestibuled 6-wheel parlor cars; 788 length; 41 revolving seats; all converted to coaches 1911-1916. 789-791, 793, 795 sold to Georgia Co. June 1927 792 to MW 214 in June 1927 794 to air-brakecar 26 in June 1927 796 to MW 205 in July 1927 797-808 PermR.R. 1906; twelvevestibuled6-wheel parlor cars; 575 length; revolving seats; received May 1906 from PRR for Shelter Island and Block Island Expresses. 797, 799 scrapped 1915 798 sold to Central Islip StateHospital in 1919, foruse as hospital car between L.I. Cityand CentralIslip. Used till 1929. 800-808 scrapped between 1913 and 1915 809-818 American Car &Foundry 1911; ten steel parlor cars; high monitorroof; large squarewindows in theendsheets; cost $15,000 each. Class PP-70 816-818 rebuilt by LIRR into 50-seat club cars in June 1925; new class P-70. CLUB CARS 819-826 American Car & Foundry 1913; eight steel club cars; low monitor roof; 50 wickerchairs facing the aisle; class PP- -70; porthole windows in the end sheets. 827-828 American Car & Foundry 1916; two steel club cars; low monitor roof; 50 wicker chairs facing the aisle; class PP- -70;porthole windows in the end sheets. 830-833 American Car & Foundry 1917; four steel club cars; low monitor roof; 50 wicker chairs facing aisle. Class PP-70. Porthole windows in the endsheets. 1677 Clubcar "Rockaway"; American Car &Foundry 1914; 645 1/4' length; 9'll 1/4' width; 130 height; seating 44. (Electric trailer) Hadcontrols but no motors;hinged end doors 389 American Car & Foundry 1913; monitor roof, steam club Nassau car, wickerchairs facing theaisle; two toilets;water cool- er, hinged door ends. Class P-54F.Named the "Nassau"; converted in 1917 to a 66-seat coach with two and two plush seating. 391 American Car & Foundry 1916; club car "Oyster Bay"; same furnishings as the "Nassau". Class P-54G 390 American Car & Foundry 1915; club car "South Shore". ClassLP-70A Monitorroof, steam clubcar; wickerchairs facing the aisle; two toilets, water cooler; hinged door ends; water raising system; window screens in summer. Converted in 1917 to 91-seat coach, class P-70L with two and two plush seating. RAPID TRANSITCARS (forBrooklyn-Hillside & Brooklyn-Rockaway) 801-826 Jackson&Sharp 1877& 1879; 26 coaches;435 length;seat- ing 48. Sold in 1906; already out of use "several years". 827-851 Gilbert & Bush 1888; 25 coaches; 465 length; seating 48. All except 829 and 842 to the Transit Equipment Co. of NY, a BrooklynRapid Transit Co. subsidiary 829 converted to club car in 1901; in 1908converted for "MU" operation with MP-41 cars with vestibules, couplers, jumpersand head-end controls. Scrapped Aug. 1924. 842 may have been built to elevated baggage car 976 852-876 Pullman 1898; 25 coaches; with center doors; 467 length; seating 56. All sold in 1917 (except 876) to the Washing- ton, Baltimore & Annapolis R.R. where they became 301-324. 876mayhave beenrebuilt to elevated baggage car 977;all converted to electric operation in 1905 at Morris Park Shops foruse withMP-41's. Vestibules, couplers, jumpers added. Used in the middle ofa train only as trailerssince they lacked head-endcontrols. 877-906 Wason 1899; 30 coaches with center doors; 467 length; seating56. Built for the Jamaica-BrooklynBridge service; all altered 1905 in Morris Park Shops for use as trailers with MP-41 cars. All sold 1917 to the Washington,Balti- more & Annapolis R.R. where they became 325-354 OnNov. 12, 1913 thePublic ServiceCommissionordered the LIRR to use these wooden cars only to maintain schedules Sept. 15, 1914 Use forbiddenaltogether Dec. 1, 1914 LIRR having refused to accept order, new date is set. Dec. 17, 1914 actual dateLIRR discontinueduse of these cars BATTERY CARS 1 Federal Storage Battery Car Co. Aug. 1911; arch roof; four wheels; seating 26. Edison-Beach Manufacturing Co. installed electric wiring and storage batteries. Used on the Bushwick Branch between Bushwick stationand Fresh Pond station from April 1, 1911 to about 1913. Then it went to the West Hemp- stead Br. but it rocked so badly that the crews got seasick and it had tobe replaced by #2 and #4. Car # 1 came originally with a street railway type single truck. Some time later it wasrebuilt in Morris Park shopswith continental-type trucks like #2 and #4 and the body was rebuilt below the window sills with straight-side, narrow vertical strips. Scrapped Dec. 30, 1926. 2(combine), 4(coach) Brill Car Co. Sept. 1914; arch roof; four wheels; equipped with link andpin couplers and MUjumpers forMU operation. Beach Co. installed electric wiring and storage batteries. Crossseating back toback. Used on the West HempsteadBranch from 1914 to May 1926. Both scrapped July 30, 1927. MISCELLANEOUS CARS A Builder & date unknown; 530 length; destroyed by firein Morris Park ShopsDec. 29, 1904. InNovember 1901 the LIRR was reported "building a private presidential car for President TheodoreRoosevelt tobe used onhis trips fromWashington to hishomeat OysterBay. to furnish a retreat from sightseers." B Pay car;builder and date unknown; 510 length; seating 11. Destroyed by fire in Long Island City yard fire of Aug. 20, 1910. E Hospitalcar, builder & date unknown; 521 length; made from a combine in January 1901 to carry insanepatients to Kings Park. Destroyed by fire in Long Island City yard fire of Aug. 20, 1910. 3 Pay car, PermR.R. 1910. A replacement for "B". Renum- (B) bered to8 duringWorld War I. Sold Nov. 1924. 39 Business car; Pullman Car Co. Aug. 1909; sl'll' length; (100) Probably a replacement for A. It had observation plat- form. Renumbered to 100 on Nov. 23, 1925. Sold to the Perm R.R. 1929. 600 Business car. Probably Pullman 1902; a combine used by General Superintendent J. A. McCrae, fitted upelegantly enough tobe usedbyPres. TheodoreRoosevelt'sparty to the funeral of Secretary Hays in July 1905. The LIRR report for 1909 mentions that "one officer's car was destroyed and replaced." 200 Business car; Jackson&Sharp, date unknown; 626 length; (2000) seating26. Used by PresidentPotter andPresidentPeters for inspection trips all over the LIRR and is known to have made trips over other railroads. Renumbered to 2000 in 1906 and 2200 in 1925. Scrapped between 1935 and 1938. "Central Hospital car, builtMay 1911 froma Pullman parlor car to Islip" transport insane persons; fittedup according to plans of the State Commission. Put into service July 12, 1911. Electric Cars 1000-1133 American Car & Foundry 1905; 134 steel passenger cars; type MP-41 51 '4* length overall; B'B' width; 12'1 1/2' height; 82,138 lbs. weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; two WH 113 motors; seating 52. Closely modeled on IRT cars to permit joint service in the Manhattan subway. 1200-1204 Wason 1905; five wooden baggage&express cars; type MB- -45; 528 length overall; 9'll'width; 130 height; 76,444 lbs. weight;monitor roof with slopingends; two WH 113 motors. Large square end windows; side doors; used between Brooklyn& Jamaica.Retired June 1934. MCB couplers, used to tow regular steam baggage cars. 1205-1208 American Car & Foundry 1910; four steel baggage cars; type MB-62 645 1/4' length overall; 9' 11 1/2' width; 130height; 129,650lbs. weight;monitor roof with slop- ing ends; four WH 308 motors. 1209-1210 American Car& Foundry 1910; two baggage & mail cars; typeMBM-62; 645 1/4' lengthoverall; 9' 11 1/2' width; 130height; 112,600lbs. weight;monitor roof with slop- ing ends; four WH 308 motors. Mail section added in 1925 and twomotors removed. 1211-1214 American Car & Foundry 1910; four steel baggage cars; type MB-62; 645 1/2' length overall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130height; 111,000 lbs. weight;monitor roof with slop- ing ends; four WH 308 motors. Modified in 1925 to two- motor cars; class then changed to MB-62A. 1215-1219 American Car & Foundry 1910; five steel baggage cars; type MB-62; 645 1/2' length overall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130height; 129,650lbs. weight;monitor roofwith slop- ing ends; four WH308GL motors All five cars were converted tosteam in the 19205; then 1215 and 1216 were converted back to electric, while 1217-1219 remained as steam cars. Baggage cars 1215-1219 had electric markers and headlightsbut were used in steam service, the motor trucks being switched and put under five cars in the 1205-1214 series which made them 4-motor cars & they were used for pulling steam baggage & express cars. 1348-1349 American Car&.Foundry 1912; two combinationcars; type MPB-54;645 1/4' lengthoverall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130 height; 108,700lbs. weight; two WH 308 motors; seating 52. Green plush seats; hinged doors. Originally Penn- sylvania Railroad 4513-4514; came to LIRRFeb. 1923. 1350-1364 Standard Steel 1910; fifteen steel combination cars; type MPB-54;645 1/4' lengthoverall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130 height; 105,250 lbs. weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; two WH 308 motors; seating 51. 1365-1369 American Car&Foundry 1912; five combinationcars; type MPB-54; 645 1/4' length overall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130 height; 108,700 lbs. weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; two WH 308 motors; seating 51. 1370-1381 American Car & Foundry 1913; combination cars; type MPB-54; 645 1/4' length overall; 9*ll 1/2' width; 130 height; 111,000 lbs. weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; seating 53; two WH 308 motors. 1382-1384 American Car & Foundry 1913; threepassenger-baggage- mail cars; typeMPBM-54; 645 1/4' length overall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130 height; 115,300 lbs. weight; monitor roofwith slopingends; twoWH 308 motors; seating 32. 1385-1399 American Car & Foundry 1914; fifteen passenger-baggage cars; type MPB-54. 645 1/4' length overall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130 height; 110,900 lbs. weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; twoWH-308 motors; seating 53. #1391 has been preserved by the LIRR as a museum car. 1401-1420 American Car & Foundry 1908-09; twenty passenger coaches; type MP 54A; 645 1/4' length overall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130 height; 104,400 weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; two WH 308 motors; seating 69. #1409 waswrecked in 1949in a crash in the Sunnyside Yards. The first five cars were delivered in November 1908. 1421-1450 American Car & Foundry 1908; thirty passenger coaches; type MP-54; 645 1/4' length overall; 9' 11 1/2' width; 130*height; 104,200lbs. weight;monitor roof with slop- ing ends; twoWH 308 motors; seating72. Cost $18,500. No toilets in this group; had baggage racks. 1451 American Car & Foundry 1906; type P-58. This car was always a steam car and, strictly speaking, does not belong in this list of electric cars; for the sake of com- pleteness in numbers it is inserted here. This car was delivered as #1401, a model car, in December 1906, and was put into steam service on Dec. 13 on the Block Island Express for a trial run. On Dec. 17, 1907, it was renumbered to #1451 to vacate 1401 fornew MU's on order. #1451 had a monitor roof, squarewindows in the end sheets, wooden side doors and seated 72. Later became club car "Smithtown", then club car 179, then coach 179. 1452-1551 American Car & Foundry 1910; 100 passenger coaches; type MP-54A; 645 1/4' length overall; 9'11 1/2' width; 130 height; 104,400lbs. weight; monitorroof with slop- ing ends. Two WH 308 motors; seating 69. #1482 wrecked inFeb. 1950in RockvilleCentre gaunt- let trackwreck. #1516wrecked in Nov. 1950 in Kew Gardens crash. #1523 wrecked in Nov. 1950 in Kew Gardens crash. 1552-1601 American Car&Foundry 1911;50 passenger coaches; type MP-54A; 645 1/4' length overall; 9' 11 1/2' width; 130 height; 109,400 lbs. weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; two WH308 motors; seating69. 1602-1621 American Car& Foundry 1912; 20 passenger coaches; type MP-54A; 645 1/4' length overall; 9' 11 1/2' width; 130 height; 111,200 lbs. weight. Monitor roof with sloping ends; two WH308 motors; seating 69. 1622-1636 American Car& Foundry 1913; 15passenger coaches; type MP-54A; 645 1/4' length overall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130 height; 111,000 lbs. weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; two WH 308 motors; seating 69. #1632 is pre- servedby the LIRR as a museum car. 1637-1676 American Car&Foundry 1914;50 passenger coaches; type MP-54A; 645 1/4' length overall; 9' 11 1/2' width; 130 height; 110,350 lbs. weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; two WH308motors; seating 71. 1778-1783 American Car&Foundry 1912;sixpassengercoaches; type MP-54A; 645 1/4' length overall; 9'll 1/2' width; 130 height; 106,000 lbs. weight; monitor roof with sloping ends; twoWH 308 motors; seating 68. Transferred from the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1923 to the Long Island R.R. Original numbers: 202 to 1778;204 to 1779; 206 to 1780; 203 to 1781; 205 to 1782 201 to 1783. Thesecarshad green plush seatsandhinged doors. Note for most MP-54 & MP-54A: (unless otherwise noted) Interior: 2 and 2 rattan seating; 1 toilet; double slidingend doors; no baggage racks. Exterior: porthole windows in end sheets; square windows in storm doors; crank operated manualside doors; small round head- lights; identification lights. ELECTRIC TRAILERS 907-926 Standard Steel 1915; twenty arch-roof steel M. U. trailer cars; 645 1/4' length over couplers, 9'lo 7/16' width; 130height, seating 80; 63,000 lbs. weight. Class T-54 927-951 Standard Steel 1916; twenty-five arch-roofsteelmultiple unit trailer cars; 645 1/4' length over corners; 9'lo 7/16' width; 130height, seating80, 63,100 lbs. weight, classT- -54A. 952-996 Pressed Steel 1917; 45 arch-roof steel multiple unit trailer cars; 645 1/4' length over couplers; 9' 10 7/16' width; 130 height; seating 80; class T-54A. 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Hulse 2 E-51 Baldwin Apr. 1901 18938 Later E-5 IS Retired 1928 3 E-51 Baldwin May 1902 20488 Later E-5IS Retired Apr. 3, 1929 4 E-51 Baldwin May 1902 20496 Later E-5 IS Scrapped Mar. 1928 198 E-l Juniata June 1899 585 Ex-PRR 698 Dec. 1903 Retired 1911 199 E-l Juniata June 1899 586 Ex-PRR 700 Dec. 1903 Retired 1911 200 E-l Juniata June 1899 587 Ex-PRR 820 Dec. 1903 Retired 1911 2-6-2T Suburban passenger tank engines 20 S-51 Baldwin Mar. 1904 23929 Sold to CNJ 220, class J-1Cc. 1911 21 S-51 Baldwin Mar. 1904 23940 Sold to CNJ 221, class J-1Cc. 1911 22 S-51 Baldwin Mar. 1904 24008 Sold to CNJ 222, class J-1Cc. 1911 23 S-51 Baldwin Apr. 1904 24056 Sold to CNJ 223, class J-1C c.1911 24 S-51 Baldwin Apr. 1904 24082 Sold to CNJ 224, class J-1C c.1911 4-4-0 Passenger locomotives 25 D-51 Baldwin May 1879 4631 Retired by Jan. 1912 26 D-51 Baldwin May 1879 4633 Retired by Jan. 1912 27 D-52 Rogers April 1882 2972 Retired by June 5, 1906 28 D-52 Rogers April 1882 2973 Retired by Jan. 1912 29 D-52 Rogers April 1882 2974 Retired by Jun. 5. 1906 30 D-52 Rogers April 1882 2984 Retired by Jun. 5, 1906 31 D-52 Rogers April 1882 2986 Retired by Jan. 1912 32 D-52 Rogers April 1882 2987 Retired by Jan. 1912 33 D-52 Rogers April 1883 3238 Retired by Jan. 1912 34 D-52 Rogers April 1883 3240 Retired by Jan. 1912 35 D-52 Rogers April 1883 3244 Retired by Jan. 1912 36 D-52 Rogers April 1883 3246 Retired by Jan. 1912 37 D-52 Rogers April 1883 3248 Retired by Jan. 1912 38 D-52B Rogers May 1883 3259 Retired by Jan. 1912 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 D-52B Rogers May 1883 3260 Retired by August 1914 D-52A Rogers May 1883 3262 Sold to Vitagraph Co. for movie wreck 1914 D-52A Rogers May 1883 3263 Retired by 1906 D-52A Rogers May 1883 3264 Retired by Jan. 1912 D-53 Rogers June 1888 3955 Retired by Apr. 1917 D-53A Rogers June 1888 3956 Retired by Apr. 1917 D-53 Rogers June 1888 3957 Retired by Jan. 1912 D-53 Rogers June 1888 3958 Retired by Apr. 1917 D-53A Rogers June 1888 3959 Retired by Apr. 1917 D-53B Rogers June 1888 3960 On scrap track Mar. 1913 D-53A Rogers June 1888 3961 Retired by Apr. 1917 D-53A Rogers Apr. 1889 4131 Retired by Apr. 1917 D-53A Rogers Apr. 1889 ' 4132 Retired by Apr. 1917D-53 Rogers May 1889 4135 Retired by Apr. 1917D-53 Rogers May 1889 4136 Retired by January 1912 D-53A Rogers May 1889 4139 Sold to Pathe for movie wreck c.1914 D-53B Rogers May 1889 4140 Retired by April 1917 D-53 Rogers May 1889 4145 Retired by April 1917 D-53 Cooke June 1890 2004 Retired by April 1917 D-53B Cooke June 1890 2005 Retired by April 1917 D-53 Cooke June 1890 2006 Retired by April 1917 D-53 Cooke June 1890 2007 Retired by January 1912 D-53 Cooke June 1890 2008 Retired by January 1912 D-53 Cooke Apr. 1891 2102 Retired by January 1912 D-53 Cooke Apr. 1891 2103 Retired by April 1917 D-54 Baldwin Jun. 1893 13475 Retired by April 1917 D-54 Baldwin May 1893 13453 Retired by April 1917 D-54 Baldwin May 1893 13454 Retired by April 1917 D-54 Baldwin May 1893 13455 Retired by April 1917 D-54 Baldwin May 1893 13456 Retired by April 1917 D-54 Baldwin Jun. 1893 13499 Retired by April 1917 D-54 Baldwin Jun. 1893 13500 Retired by April 1917 D-54 Baldwin Jun. 1893 13501 Retired by April 1917 D-54 Baldwin Jun. 1893 13502 On scrap track Mar. 1913 D-54 Baldwin Jun. 1893 13510 Retired by Apr. 1917 D-55 Baldwin Jun. 1893 13511 Retired by Apr. 1917 D-55 Baldwin Jun. 1893 13512 Scrapped May 15, 1924 D-55 Baldwin Jun. 1893 13513 Retired byApril 1917 D-55A Brooks Mar. 1898 2933 Retired by April 1917 D-55A Brooks Mar. 1898 2934 Scrapped Oct. 27, 1925 D-55A Brooks Mar. 1898 2935 Retired by April 1917 D-55A Brooks Mar. 1898 2936 Retired by April 1917 D-55A Brooks Mar. 1898 2937 Retired by April 1917 D-56 Baldwin May 1903 22179 Retired byDec. 1, 1930.Later D-56S Named "WalterRead" 1922, then transferred to #84 D-56 Named May 1903 22182 Retired Jan. 23, 1930. 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 D-56 Baldwin May 1903 22190 Retired Jul. 30, 1930. Named "Walter Read" from 1922 to about 1926 D-56 Baldwin May 1903 22191 Retired Jan,23, 1930 Later D-56S D-56 Baldwin Jan. 1904 23570 Scrapped April 1928 D-56 Baldwin Jan. 1904 23571 Retired Feb. 6, 1930 Later D-56S D-56 Baldwin Jan. 1904 23604 Retired Aug. 15, 1930 D-56 Baldwin Jan. 1904 23611 Retired about 1930 LaterD-56S D-56 Baldwin Jan. 1904 23612 Retired July 3, 1929 D-56 Baldwin Jan. 1904 23642 Retired Feb. 6, 1930 Later D-56S Named "Charles McKeever" 1922 to about 1926 D-56 Baldwin Jan. 1904 23647 Retired Feb. 6, 1930 Later D-56S D-56 Baldwin Feb. 1904 23663 Retired Jul. 3, 1930 D-56 Baldwin Feb. 1904 23664 Retired May 1, 1930 D-56 Baldwin Feb. 1904 23665 Retired Apr. 3, 1930 Later D-56S D-56 Baldwin Feb. 1904 23686 Retired Nov. 28, 1928 D-56 Baldwin Feb. 1904 23687 Retired Oct. 3, 1929 Later D-56S D-56 Baldwin Feb. 1904 23696 Retired Feb. 6, 1930 Later D-56S D-56 Baldwin Feb. 1904 23697 Retired Jan. 7, 1929 Later D-56S D-56 Baldwin Feb. 1904 23698 Retired Nov. 2, 1930 Later D-56S >01 >02 >03 >04 >05 >06 >07 >08 >09 >10 >11 >12 113 >14 115 216 217 m 219 220 221 222 223 D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1358 Retired June 1928 Later D-16SB D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1359 Retired Aug. 5, 1929 Later D-16SB D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1360 Retired Oct. 1928 Later D-16SB D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1361 Retired Dec. 1928 D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1362 Scrapped Aug. 1927 D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1363 Scrapped Dec. 1925 D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1364 Retired Aug. 1, 1930 Later D-16SB D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1365 Retired Dec. 1928 Later D-16SB D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1366 Retired Dec. 1928 D-16B Juniata Sept. 1905 1367 Retired Aug. 1928 D-16B Juniata Jan. 1906 1432 Scrapped Apr. 1928 D-16B Juniata Jan. 1906 1433 Retired May 3, 1934 Later D-16SB Named "Seaman Burchell" 1922 to about 1926 D-16B Juniata Jan. 1906 1434 Scrapped June 1928 D-16B Juniata Jan. 1906 1435 Retired Aug. 1928 Later D-16SB D-16B Juniata Jan. 1906 1436 Retired Nov. 1, 1931 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 1437 Scrapped Apr. 1928 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 1431 Scrapped Nov. 1925 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 1439 Scrapped Dec. 1925 D-16B Juniata Feb. 1906 1440 Scrapped May 1928 D-16B Juniata Feb. 1906 1441 Scrapped June 1928 D-16B Juniata Feb. 1906 1442 Scrapped March 1928 D-16B Juniata Feb. 1906 1443 Scrapped May 1928 Later D-16SB D-16B Juniata Feb. 1906 1444 Retired Aug. 1, 1932 Later D-16SB 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 D-16B JuniataFeb. 1906 D ? Rogers May 1880 D ? Hinkley 1879 D ? Hinkley 1879 D ? Rogers 1879 D ? Rogers 1879 D ? Rogers June 1880 D ? Rogers May 1880 D-54A Baldwin May 1893 D-54A Baldwin May 1893 D-54A Baldwin May 1893 D-54A Baldwin Jun. 1893 D-54A Baldwin Jun. 1893 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 2589 ? ? ? ? 2602 2590 13440 13441 13442 13473 13474 Retired Sept. 1928 Later D-16SB Scrapped Aug. 1927 Retired Jan. 1, 1929 Later D-16S] Retired May 1, 1929 Retired Aug. 9, 1934 Retired May 3, 1934 Scrapped Aug. 1927 Retired June 6, 1929 Ex-New York &Rock. Beach Retired Jun. 5, 1906 Ex-NY & Rock. Beach Retired Sept. 1905 Ex-NY & Rock. Beach Retired Sept. 1905 Ex-NY& Rock. Beach Retired Jun. 5, 1906 Ex-NY& Rock. Beach Retired Jun.5, 1906 Ex-NY &Rock. Beach Retired Jun.5, 1906 Ex-NY &Rock. Beach Retired Jun.5. 1906 Ex-NY &Rock. Beach Retired by Apr. 1917 Ex-NY &Rock. Beach Retired by Apr. 1917 Ex-NY &Rock. Beach Retired by Apr. 1917 Ex-NY &Rock. Beach Retired by Apr. 1917 Ex-NY &Rock. Beach Retired by Apr. 1917 ter Forney tank engines, i 201 Baldwin 202 Baldwin 203 Baldwin 204 Baldwin 205 Baldwin 206 Baldwin 207 Baldwin 208 Baldwin 209 Baldwin 210 Baldwin 211 Baldwin 212 Baldwin 213 Baldwin 214 Baldwin 215 Baldwin 216 Baldwin 217 Rhode Island 218 Rhode Island 219 Rhode Island 220 Rhode Island 221 Rhode Island 222 Rhode Island 223 Rhode Island 224 Rhode Island 225 Rhode Island 226 Rhode Island See Vol. VI, pp. 242-3 May 1879 May 1879 May 1879 May 1879 May 1879 May 1879 May 1892 May 1892 May 1892 May 1892 May 1892 May 1892 May 1892 May 1892 May 1892 May 1892 1893-4 1893-4 1893-4 1893-4 1893-4 1893-4 1893-4 1893-4 1893-4 Oct. 1894 3 for disposition. Sold 190. 4649 4652 4653 4655 4656 4657 12700 12701 12702 12703 12707 12708 12709 12718 12719 12720 Order No. unknown Order No. unknown Order No. unknown Order No. unknown Order No. unknown Order No. unknown Order No. unknown Order No. unknown Order No. unknown 3006 05-6 Ex. 105 Ex. 106 Ex. 107 Ex. 108 Ex. 109 Ex. 110 Ex. 150 Ex. 151 Ex. 152 Ex. 153 Ex. 154 Ex. 155 Ex. 156 Ex. 157 Ex. 158 Ex. 159 Ex. 160 Ex. 161 Ex. 162 Ex. 163 Ex. 164 Ex. 165 Ex. 166 Ex. 167 Ex. 168 Ex. 169 CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ P3CQ W W W W W M53 53 't Tt- Tt 't"? "? "I 1 "? "? "? "?'? oooooo s Zt *i <<<* s ***s *s *<<<~< 66666666666666*6 i 5© 5© 5© 5o So PJ £ | "Q OOOOOOOOOOOOOO" O M « M M M gj Cg C C C C C >.>!>>>>>>SMg * § 3 g ~ ~ S s c c 'C > 'C g 2 -C *C ~ -C . 2 - " -It - ~ a a a a a a I a a ! a laaaaaaaa I a a a a a oia:o m ir» cv "o o o 3 "1 so O r-T 04 °8 " . Q. Ooo r- m "& or»"o«Z°° § g 8 8 0 r. O o -gTi "i ~ "Z 8 % Z & o &% g i | -8 <* O «S » So Q S a .2 a! .3 .a g> 2 | "* | D '.S3■S2i|£-S£'g > c S S !«: "= -s c>§ I«S'HI -s » X= « g-g 8 "£Q Uh "S 13 "B "S td -a f2 <£ c2 (5 § <2 c£ C a J 2 *0 vo vo vo "c O r-> 2 2 2 2 >> 2 2-a 8 8 8 8 § S3 Sa Q Q Q | SS 3 .O >■» >» +1T3 T3 T} T3 *£ 2 2 2 2 0. I §ggf || <%£<%<%£ mm % < . >.< s I 3> Ho 2ouo hJ u2 Haw"Jw £ tS >» s T3 " rn !# -a co & 0*2 £5 ~ So "5 Oh f « 3 'I)5 "C 2 2* -J £g J J 3< w '% £ '%T3 -a T3 *c3 *c3 la CQ CQ CQ < CQ CQ CQ Q < £ E I15 o *T "4 < o "< Station Supplement The definitive list of stations appears at the end of volume VI. The sta- tions listed here are those newly opened between 1901 and 1916 or rebuilt during that time. In summary, theseare as follows: 1901 Auburndale Rockville Centre Oct. 14, 1901 Speonk Dec. 1901 1902 Copiague Woodmere Rugby June 12, 1902 OysterBay July 1902 Wardenclyffe (Shoreham) 1903 Port Jefferson July 25, 1903 Brentwood Nov. 10, 1903 Lakeview Bayport Aug. 10, 1903 Steeplechase April 1903 WaterMill Aug. 1903 Long Island City Apr. 27, 1903 1904 Pinelawn 1905 Westhampton Quogue Hewlett Sayville Nostrand Avenue Aug. 29, 1905 Warwick Street Aug. 29, 1905 1906 Broadway-Flushing Sept. 1, 1906 Locust Valley Dec. 1906 Lawrence Aug. 1906 Cedar Manor Locust Manor 1907 Laurelton April 1907 Nassau Boulevard Suffolk Downs Golf Grounds Flatbush Avenue Apr. 1, 1907 1908 Higbie Avenue 1909 Malba Floral Park Long Beach June 1909 Huntington Oct. 1909 Hicksville Oct. 30, 1909 Kew Gardens Plandome Manhattan Beach Nov. 1909 Bellerose Stewart Manor 1910 Riverhead Jun. 2, 1910 Sag Harbor 1911 Forest Hills Aug. 5, 1911 Hillside May 15, 1911 Aquebogue Greenlawn Sept. 1911 Amagansett Merillon Avenue BrooklynManor Jan. 2, 1911 Nassau: name changed to Glen Coveon June 28, 1911 Inwood Dec. 3, 1911 Woodhaven UnionCourse wider platforms jutting into street Autumn Avenue area. 1912 Arverne Bayshore Jul. 17, 1912 Holtsville May 1912 1913 Hempstead Feb. 1913 Jamaica Mar. 9, 1913 Grand Street Country Life Press Cedarhurst Flushing-Main Street Oct. 4, 1913 Good Ground (Hampton Bays) Union Hall Street Mai verne Feb. 1913 Howard Beach Apr. 1913 1914 Hunter's Point Avenue July 1, 1914 Dunton Murray Hill July 1914 1915 Woodside Oct. 17, 1915 Oceanside 1916 High Bridge June28, 1916 (Westbridge) Baldwin Dec. 1917 SouthSt. Jul. 16, 1916 MAINLINE Hunter's Point: The Long Island City terminal of the 1890's burned down on the night ofDec. 18, 1902. The newbuilding was built on the site of the old one at the corner ofBorden Avenue &2nd St. and closely resembled its predecessor; two storieshighwith waiting room and entrances on the first floor and offices on the second. Workbegan Jan. 24, 1903 and the building was opened to the public Apr. 27, 1903before it was fully finished.At the same time the railroad decid- ed to enlarge the yardsby acquiring all the private property southof the tracks to 54th Avenue, fully doubling the old yard area. The commercial structures were demolished by July 15, 1903. In Dec. and Jan. 1904 a 100 foot extensionwas built on the south sideof the station and south of that a two-story structure withgalvanized steel walls was erected for the Long Island Express Co. In June 1906 the company put a 2nd floor on the station extension to gain sorely needed office space, making the whole facade on2nd Street uniform and 400 feet long to within40 ft. of 54th Avenue. Hunter's Point Aye: Built expressly to permitcommuters to change to the IRT trains at Hunter's Point Aye. station a block away. The LIRR opened the station July 1, 1914but the subway stationdid not open till Feb. 15, 1916. High level wooden platforms reached bya staircase toHunter's Point Aye. Woodside: The relocationof the tracks toan embankment and elimina- tion of the reverse curve forced abandonment of the old site and depot. Thenew station at 61st St. & Roosevelt Avenue openedOct. 17, 1915. The old station was demolishedNov. 17, 1915. GrandSt: The LIRR opposed thisstation but stronglocalpressures in Elmhurst and Maspethand orders from the PublicService Commis- sion forced its establishment in 1913, after much delay, just west of Grand Street. Abandoned 1925. Wooden platforms but no station building. Matawok (ForestHills West): Ashort-lived station immediatelyeast of the junctionof the Main Line and Rockaway Beach line. Station at 66thSt. Built for the MatawakLand Co. which was developingFor- est Hills West. 400 foot wooden platforms with access by means of two spansover the Main Line and seven spans over the Rockaway Line. Opened June25, 1922 and abandoned July 1925. Forest Hills: Station built to serve the Forest Hills development of the Cord-MeyerCo. and the Sage Foundation. Platformswith ornamen- tal iron work and connected with the Forest Hills Inn. Opened August 5, 1911 Kew Gardens: Maple Grovestation, a stopping place largely for ceme- tery visitors, had been about 500 feet south ofKew Gardens Road (old Newtown Rd.). The newstationwasmoved 600 feetsouthdown LefFerts Aye. to the new alignment of the Main Line tracks during the summer of 1908. The golfcourse, owned by Alrick Manfy, was cut up and developed into a new high-class residential area, Kew Gardens. The newKew station was built in the summer of 1909. Westbridge: This station was the result of Richmond Hill pressure on the PublicServiceCommissionduring 1913and 1914; the order fora station came in March 1916. The railroad suggested thename West- bridge which was accepted by the residents. Opened June 28, 1916. Jamaica:Workbegan on thebig newstation July26, 1910. The five sta- tion platforms are 1000 feet long. The Jamaica stationbuilding is 70 X 174 and was originally intended to be twelve stories high. The finishedbuildingis four storieshigh witha "temporary" roof. Mate- rial is largely glazed terra cotta and tile over a steel skeleton. Con- structed by the Northeastern ConstructionCo. after plans of Engi- neer J. Savage. Opened March 9, 1913 UnionHall St.: The removal of the new Jamaica station 1790 feetwest of the old location seriously inconvenienced the heart of the village. Tocompensate for the loss, the LIRR opened Union HallSt. station between New York Avenue and Union Hall St. There was a small brickbuildingon the north side and a woodenislandplatform in the cut, access to which was securedby a staircase leading to the iron bridge crossing the tracks. Hillside: Built to serve local residents and particularly Jamaica Estates, who financed the new building and its approaches. Depot was one story ofbrick and terracotta withlimestone trimandblue slateroof. Stationconstructed in the summer of 1910; opened May 15, 1911. Bellerose: A new 1Vi story redbrick stationwith slopingroofand deco- rative Dutch-style pediments on the east and west ends. Erected in the summer of 1909 at a cost of $12,000. Floral Park: New station built summer of 1909; one-story brick with porches on either end. Merillon Aye.: Opened in 1911 for the use ofresidents in west Garden City. Gravel platforms;no depot building. Hicksville: In 1908 the LIRR resolved to improveHicksvillewith anew depot, new freightyards, double tracks andan interlockingsystem. New land was needed on the south side, some of which had to be acquired by condemnation. The new station was built May-Oct. 1909, west of Jerusalem Aye. and 800 feet west of the old site. The building wasofbrick withashingleroof, 30 X 60 feet witha concrete platform 600 feet long. Opened Oct. 30, 1909. Pinelawn: Pinelawn Cemetery was opened in 1903 andwas at that time the largest cemetery in the world; the cornerstone of the station- administration building was laid by Episcopal Bishop Burgess Sept. 15, 1903. The largemarble, two-story buildingwas longand narrow and contained a chapel, restaurant, bell tower and administrative offices.Opened 1904. Burned down April 1928. Brentwood:Original station burneddown April 1903. New station com- pleted on Nov. 10, 1903. Building was ofbrick, one-story and with porcheson either side. Holtsville: A one-story frame buildingwithsloping roof and two pillars oneither side on the porches. Erected May 1912 and burneddown January 4, 1914. Riverhead: A handsome new depot was built just west of the old one; Dutch colonial style and built of brickand stone; 22 X 69 with long shed platforms at either end; the interior had a large waiting room, fountain, open fireplace, settees, baggage room; 2nd story furnished living quarters. Opened June 2, 1910. Aquebogue: Anew framestation wasbuilt in 1911on the southside of the track opposite the old station. Work beganMarch 1910 and was completed over the summer. An acre of land on the east wasbought and filled in toprovide a 1400 foot passing track. ATLANTIC BRANCH Flatbush Aye.: Built at the corner ofHanson and Ashland Places & Flatbush Aye. Designedby Charles Jacobsand J. V. Davies, the East River tunnel engineers. Mr. H. F. Saxelbyewas the architect and P. J. Carlin &Co. were the contractors. The exterior was of roughred brick with buff brickand terra cotta facings. Main entranceat Han- son & Ashland Places with additional entrances and exits on Flatbush Aye. Main waiting room 73 X90' B', surmountedby a sky- light. The various offices were arranged on a balcony around the waiting room. At the east end were the stair-cases to the under- ground platforms and Station "L" of the Brooklyn Post Office. Opened Apr. 1, 1907. Nostrand Aye.:Elevated stationbetween Nostrand Aye. andNew York Aye.; concrete platforms; ticket agent at west end of each platform. Opened Aug. 29, 1905. Warwick St.: Elevated station betweenWarwick and Cleveland Streets. Wooden island platform divided longitudinally by a board fence. Opened Aug. 29, 1905. AutumnAvenue, Union Course and Woodhaven: New stations had to be constructed in February and March 1905 because of the four- tracking on this stretch, completed Apr. 28, 1905 Dunton: The elevation of the Jamaica yards and tracks realignment forced the shift of the station from its original site at the junctionof the Montauk and AtlanticBranches to 130th St. Concretehigh-level platformswere built on eachside; nodepotbuilding. Plans filed Sept. 1913;opened 1914. SouthSt.: Theresidents urged the railroad to put upa stationbecause it was a mile walk to the new Jamaica station andhalf a mile to the old Beaver St. station. The Public Service Commission ordered the LIRR toopen astationbyNov. 1, 1914; the companystrongly resist- ed on the ground that service would be slowed; again the PSC ordered astation by Mar. 31, 1915 andagain the LIRR appealed and carried its case to the Appellate Court where it lost. Station reluc- tantly opened July 16, 1916; a depot was openedon Nov. 15, 1917. Torndown 1922. Laurelton: In Dec. 1905and Jan. 1906 the LIRR bought fromFred A. Phelps a strip 50 X336along the north side ofthe railroad from Hig- bie Aye. to the public school and astrip 25 X951 on the south side in order towiden the right of way. From Philippine Gross the LIRR bought a block 188 X 345 at the junctionof the two divisions for a station site. In Jan. 1907 the Laurelton Land Co.put up $8000 for a depot just east of 207th St. to sell building sites on their 300 acre tract. Station was 135 X 35 including covered extensions; exterior wall dark yellow rough brick; exterior woodwork of hard pine in natural finish; roof dark green Vermont slate. Work began Nov. 12, 1906; stationopened April 1907. MONTAUK BRANCH Rockville Centre: New station erected in the summer of 1901, the first on the railroad in the Spanish style. Designed by B. L. Gilbert; dimensions 50 X 25; wooden frame, covered outside with rough cement stucco; cost $6000. Building opened Oct. 14, 1901. Baldwin: In 1916 the railroad planned a new depot of Gothic design. Caretto &Foster were the architects; dimensions 53 X20; slate roof ona steel frame,supported bypolishedchestnut posts; exteriorSpan- ish brick and stucco and terra cotta trim; erected on south side of tracks on site of the old station. The second floor contained living quarters for the stationmaster. Opened December 1917. Copiague: Site donated by Scudder Jarvis, built just east of the Great Neck Road; opened 1902. In June 1913 the Italians of North Copiague tried to get the name changed to Marconiville, but the south endresisted and the attempt failed. Bayshore: During July & August 1911, the railroad agreed to build a newstation only if thevillage raised a $20,000 loanat 4%interest for three years. Under the leadership of W. W. Hulse the money was raised, but therailroad did not accept the loan. In the springof 1912 the railroad erected a handsome two-story Dutch colonial building on the north sideof the tracks andan unusually large waiting room on the southside.Stationopenedwith muchlocal celebrationon July 17, 1912. Sayville: The building of a new station, first discussed in 1900, was delayed at least three years bya dispute between Sayvilleand West Sayville residents as to a proper site, Green Aye., Greeley Aye. or Railroad Aye. Thestation was finally built at Greeley Aye. in the Spanish style; whitestucco with red tile roof; cost $12,000. Dimen- sions 24 X 48; architectBradford L. Gilbert. Opened 1905. Bayport: In June 1901 a mass meetingwas held to discussanewsite for a depot. In Sept. 1901 Mrs. Gilletteand J. A. Wood together donated 1200 feet of land from Snedecor Aye. west to Oakwood; this was about 1100 feetwest of the old depot at Bayport Aye. Thenew site pleased theoyster shippers and wealthy summer residents who fur- nishedalmostall the trade. New buildingbrick covered by concrete; dimensions 80 X 25; cost $8000. Opened Aug. 10, 1903. Speonk: The originalstation was struckby lightning June 22, 1901 and destroyed. A railroad coach served as a temporary depot. A new woodendepot, 18X 30 was erected in the fallof 1901 and opened in December 1901 or January 1902. Westhampton:F. A. M. Burrell, a summer resident, sent in a petition to the LIRR for a new station in the springof 1905. Constructionwas begun in Septemberand the building was opened before the endof the year. The dormerwindows built on all foursides of theroof gave this buildinga uniqueappearance. Quogue:A new stationwasbuilt during the summerof 1905and opened by the end of the year. The grounds were laid out in the spring of 1906. Hampton Bays: A movement for a new station began in 1908. In the spring of 1913 the railroad began the erection of a large, two-story Dutch colonial depot and the newbuilding was opened during the summer. Name changed from Good Groundin June 1922. SuffolkDowns: Avery small stationwas establishedat PeconicRoad in 1907as a signal stop only. Theroof extended beyond the little build- ing on both sides, supported by two pillars at each end. Removed 1927. GolfGrounds:A very smallbuilding witha roofprojecting out on both sides; opened in April 1907 as a signal stop; used intermittently to 1939. The old location at TuckahoeRoad is now the site of the new Southhampton College station. Water Mills: A newstationwas built on the east side ofDeerfield Road and southofthe track. Work wasbegun in November 1902and com- pleted in August 1903. Thedesigns were prepared by a Mr. Keem. fora building in the Italian villastyle with extensionson the east and west. Amagansett:The original substantialstation of 1895 was destroyed by fire on Aug. 15, 1910. A handsome two-story Dutch colonial build- ing was erected in the summer of 1911. SagHarbor: In January 1902 thefreight housewasmoved to the north side of the tracks and the depot movedback from Main St. parallel with the track. The old station was in the midst of a renovation in Oct. 1908when Mrs. Russell Sage, widow of the railroad financier, and Mrs. Aldrich contributed$2500 for awholly newbuilding. Mrs. Sage's mother came from Sag Harbor. A handsome two-story brick station with terra-cotta trim was built during 1909 and opened in 1910. WADING RIVERBRANCH Huntington: The LIRR bought a two-acre triangular plot on the east side ofNew York Aye. from JohnMullen in March 1906 for$5000. Planswereprepared bythearchitect, LutherBirdsall, fora two-story building 28' X 788 withextensions oneither side andplatforms 300 feet long. At the same time the railroad depressed New York Aye. and extended the trolley to Amityville. Work begunNovember 1908; station opened October 1909. Cost $13,500. Greenlawn:On Sept. 27, 1910 firedestroyed the old Greenlawnstation. A newstationwas erectedabout 200 yards east of the old one during the summer of 1911. Opened October 1911. Port Jefferson: In Jan. 1903 Postmaster Charles A. Squires sold to the Port Jefferson Co. the land on the east side of Route 112. Dean Alvord and ClintonRossiter, moving spirits behind the Port Jeffer- son Co., owners ofBelle Terre, purchased the site and donated it to the railroad, while the railroad paid for and built the new station after the plans ofPettit & Green ofNew York. Building ofredbrick withwhite jointsand stucco panelsbetween thewindows. Fluted col- umns support the projectingroof. Opened Sat. July 25, 1903. Old building used for freight; destroyed 1963. OYSTERBAY BRANCH Nassau: A movement tochange thename ofNassau to something more closely associated with the village began in March 1911. On June28, 1911 Nassau became Glen Cove and the station at Glen Street became Glen Street-Glen Cove. Locust Valley: In July 1905 plans were made for a new station and freight house. Work began about Oct. 1, 1905 and the new station was opened Oct.-Nov. 1906.Made of pressedbrick with terracotta trimmings and red-tiled roof; trimmedinside withFlemish oak. OysterBay: Anew and imposingterminal stationwasbuilt in the spring of 1902. The main building was 32 X 68, the exterior ofcement in which oyster shells were embedded. The weather shed was 400 feet longsupported by 20 pillars. Interiorof colonialstyle, finished in for- est green, with a large fireplace and tiled hearth. Opened August 1902. HEMPSTEAD BRANCH StewartManor:New one-story station withbrickbaseand stuccowalls, green tiled roof, built 1909. Nassau Blvd.: TheGarden CityEstates, centeredon NassauBlvd., built the station 1907 todevelop the area and selllots. Redbrick withpro- jectingroof at each end ofbuilding; ornamental campanile on roof; broadbrick-paved plaza in front. CountryLife Press: Small brick station erected in 1913 for the conve- nience of Doubleday & Co. employees and to transfer between Hempstead Branch and West Hempstead Br. The station was later the trolley terminus of the shuttle. Stationnamed after the magazine "Country Life." ClintonRoad: Large handsome brick station built on the west side of ClintonRoad in 1915. Usedonly by the shuttle trolley to Meadow- brook, troop trains in World War I and the later MP-41 shuttle. Hempstead: In July 1903 theoldstationwas damaged by fire and flood- ing; the Board of Trade began to press the LIRR for a new station beginning in 1905. On Dec. 13, 1910 the railroad committed itself to a new depot. There was delay in 1911 over the closing of Centre Street. Late in 1912 construction was begun and the new station opened in Feb. 1913. WEST HEMPSTEAD BRANCH Lakeview: A newstationis mentionedasbeing erected in 1903. The late president of the LIRR, Austin Corbin, ownedalmost all the land in the area. Malveme: A newconcrete building, about 30 X 70, on aparked plaza 100 X 500 was opened in February 1913; at the same time the old name of the station, Norwood, waschanged toMalverne by general order. LONG BEACHBRANCH Oceanside: A modern brick stationwith red terracotta roofand white colonial columns was erected in the springof 1915. Long Beach: The Railroad with the cooperation of the Public Service Commission and the Estates of Long Beach relocated the station 1000 feetnorth. Anew station ofred brickand stucco was built on Park Avenuebetween Centre St.and ParkPlace. Opened June 1909. MANHATTAN BEACH BRANCH TheBrighton BeachandManhattan Beach GradeCrossingElimination Project in 1908 and 1909 caused the abandonment of the old roadbed from Manhattan Beach Junction south to Sheepshead Bay. Since the much-reduced traffic did not justify station buildings, small lean-to's with gravel platforms wereput up in 1909 at the stationsites. Rugby: Wood,Harmon & Co. who developed Rugby, built a station at Remsen Avenue for theirdevelopment; Rugby centered on Church and Utica Avenues, Brooklyn. Thebuilding was built in the bunga- low style, 31Vi X 24 and with living apartments upstairs. Opened June 12, 1902. ManhattanBeach: Anew substantialbrick terminal building, rectangu- larwith sloping roof and decorative roofbrackets, was erected west of WestEnd Avenue and north ofOriental Blvd. Workbegan Sep- tember 1909; completed November 1909. NORTHSHORE BRANCH Flushing-MainSt: Theoldstationwas abandonedNov. 11, 1912.A new two-story station of brick and concrete was erected on the new embankment during the summer of 1912, with an entranceon Grove Street. Cost $25,000. Opened Oct. 4, 1913. MurrayHill: Oldbrick stationdemolished Oct. 15, 1912; a new station was erectedover the tracks during 1912at acost of $20,000. Opened July 1914. Broadway: In October 1905 work got underway on abrick station in the triangle east of the intersectionofNorthern Blvd. and Crocheron Aye. Opened Sept. 1, 1906.Cost $10,000. This station was elevated to the level of the embankment in 1913. Aubumdale: Thearea around the station was developed in 1901 and a wooden frame depoterected during the summer.

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