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THE ART 
OF THE WORLD 

ILLUSTRATED IN THE l)AINT INGS. STATUARY, AND 

ARCH ITECTURE OF THE 

WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION 

D. H. BURNHA~l 
Dircclor of 11 · orks 

HALSEY C. l\'ES 

Ll<-;1 OF SPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS 

ROGER- BAUD 
Co111111inio11cr of Fi11c Aris for Frn11ce 

ANGELO DEL NERO 

C/iicf of ///,, Dc'/J<1rl111t'/// of Fine Artr 
Ro_rul Sp1·rit1! Co111111issiona ~! /line Arts for l !t 1~v 
ricc-l~rcsit!,·111 qf !Ill: lnlcmalional J111J for tlic /0i1h' Aris 

i\IOSES P. HANDY H UBERT \ ' OS 
C//icf ~/ /ft,· J).;p11rl1ncnt of P11b/iri11· und Pro111otio11 Assh"!t1111 Co111111issi1111t·r o( Fine Aris for Ho//,/lld 

CHARLES YRI AR TE 
Erlilor qf /ft,' Figt1ro-Su/011 

HUi\IPHl\Y W AHD 
Art Critic ~/ the Lo11t!o11 Ti111cs 

EDITED RY 

RIPLEY HITCHCOCK 

VOL. II 

NEW YORK 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 

189 5 



' I) 
l< I 

COPYRIGHT, 189>, 1 ~9 1 

BY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 



---f~---·· 

CONTENTS OF ART OF THE WORLD 

F. 1-1. T OMPKl:\S 

CHARLES c. CURRAN 
ELIHU VEDDER 

LEON A UGL 'STIN LHERM>TTE 

JEAN A UBERT 

ALBERT H ENDERSON 'i'HA \'ER 

Miss L ucy D. H OLME 

F. w. FREER 
CONSTANTIN EGOROVITCH MAKOVSK I 

W1LI.I AM BouGuEREAu 

H UGH BOLTON JONES 

WINSLOW H OMER 

LIONEL R OYER 

GEORGE INNESS 

VACSLAV BR07.IK 

G. D uBUFE 

CHIUTATO ANDO 

ALPHO:\SE DE NEUVILLE 

ANGELO DALL 'OcA BIANCA 

T. POPIEL 

CARL M ARR 

Joslo JIMENEZ y ARANDA 

STANHOPE A. FORBES 

A. W ALLANDER 

j. L. GEROME 

j OSEPI-1 BAIL 

EMILE M UNIER 

J. B. B URGESS 
AYMAR PEZANT 

MADAME "MADELEINE LEMAIRE 

F. DE V u ILLEFROY 

G. R OCHEGROSSE 

A I.BERT AuBLET 

THOMAS H ovENDEN 

WILLIAM T. R ICHARDS 

MRS. AMANDA BREWSTER SEWELL 

CAA 

VOLUME II 

PHOTOGRA VURES 

Mother and Sl eeping Chi ld 

Winter Morning in a J3;1rnya rd 

The Son·owing Soul between Doubt and Faith 

The Friend of th e Lowly 

Love's Captives 

Virgin Enthroned 

A Holiday Occupation 

Lady in Black 

The Bride's Attire 

The Women at the Tornb 

Spring 

The Hcning Net 

Love and Psyche 

Winter Morning 

Th row n from the Window at Pr:1gue 

The Ant 

Flower Sightseers 

The ~PY 
The Qj,1:1drille 

After th e-Storm 

The Flagcllants 

Who is being Fooled? 

Forging the Anchor 

Pou ltere rs 

The Serpent Cha rmer 

TYPOGRAVURES IN COLOR 

Young Scullion 

The Cold Bath 

Corning out of Church in Sev ille 

Plain of Vandancourt 

Chariot of th e Fai1·ies 

Landscape with Cattle 

The Spoils of W ar 

June Roses 

Brea king Home Ties 

February 

Sappho 

To.fare page 99 
103 

107 

Ill 

l 15 

11 9 

123 

127 

131 

135 

139 
143 

147 

151 

155 

159 
163 

167 

171 

175 

179 

183 

187 

191 

195 

To face page 97 
10 1 

105 

109 

11 3 

117 

121 

12:-; 

129 

133 
137 



VI 

GUSTAVE COURTOIS 

Guy RosE 

P. J. SINIBALDI 

D. MAILLART 

EDWARD LAMSON HENRY 

FREDERICK jAMES 

ROBERT v. V . SEWELi. 
EDWIN H OWLAND BLASHFIELD 

STEPHEN PARRISH 

FRANK V. DUMOND 

A. BROUILLET 

IRVl:-IG R AMSEY WILES 

MADAME FANNY FLEURY 

LoUis P. DEss,\R 

L. DOUCET 

H ENRI PAUL MOTTE 

ELIAS fa"IMOVITCH PEPINE 

I VAN TVOROJ EN IKOFF 

THOMAS EAKINS 

ARSSF.N I IVANOVITCH MECHTCHERSKI 

L. APO!. 

B. GENZMER 

O E CosT SMITH 

MADEMOISELLE KHANESKOI 

E. BEERNART 

HANS DAHL 

AL!lERT H. M UNSELL 

V ASSILI IVANOVITCH NAVOZOFF 

WII.LIAM POWELi. FRITH 

THOMAS ALLE!\ 

j EAN B 1°RAUD 

M ADAME VIRGINIE DEMONT-BRETON 

ROBERT REID 

j. L. STEWART 

T. J. L AYRAU!l 
L UIS JIMENEZ 

B ARONESS M ARIANNE ESCHENBURG 

CHARLES Y ARDLEY T URNER 

M ADAME VIRGIN IE D EMONT-BRETO:-< 

M ADAME SARAH BERNHARDT 

WORDSWORTH THOMPSON 

A DRIENNE POTTING 

Guv RosE 

EDOUARD D EBAT-PONSAN 

V1croR GILBERT 

AI.FRED K APPES 

WINSLOW H OMER 

E . BouTIGNY 

TYPOGRAVURES IN COLOR 

Portrait of Madame Gautreau 

Potato Gatherers 

Salammbo 

Joan of Arc listening to th e Voices 

The W edding Journey 

An Impromptu Affair in th e Days of the Code 

Sea Urchins 

Christmas Bells 

Winter Sunset at Cape Cod 

Monasti c Life 

Portrait of Mlle. Darland 

The Sonata 

A Parisienne 

The Fisherm en's Departure 

Portrait of Mademoiselle M. du M. C. 

TYPOGRA VURES 

The Tenth of August 

The Cossack's Answer to the Sultan of Turkey 

Grandmother and Grandchild 

Dr. Agnew 

The Narova Roads 

Autumn Sunset 

The Village Playgrounds 

Sioux Lovers 

Portrait of th e Empress of Russia 

Autumn Evening 

Sunday Morning in Norway-The Arrival at Church 

Danger Ahead! 

A Free Dining-room 

Retribution 

Through the Woods 

The Descent from the Cross 

A Drenching 

The Vision of St. Angela 

Cruising 

F. Liszt 

A Visit to th e Hospital 

A Sellrein W oman 

john Alden's Letter 

At th e Seaside 

Ophelia 

The Deserted Inn 

Death of Mignon 

The End of the Day 

In my Greenhouse 

Good Fishing 

Rent Day 

The Two Guides 

Surprise in a Village 

PAGE 

PAGE 

100 

102 

104 

106 

108 

110 

112 

114 

114 

116 

118 

120 

122 

124 

126 

128 



PRINCESS IMRETINSKI 

GEORGE WILLOUGHl3Y M AYNARD 

Miss E1.1zABETH G ARDNER 

WASHINGTON A LLSTON 

JosEPH Hux BoucHOR 

JOHN s. SARGENT 
WILL H. Low 

FRANK W EST0'.'1 BENSON 

F. ( HILDE H ASSAM 

H ERBERT DENMAN 

IRVl '.'IG R AMSEY WILES 

I. M. GAUGF.NGIGL 

EAST,\I AN JOH'.'ISON 

LOUIS M OELLER 

G EORGE B. BUTLER 

ALBERT A UBLET 

B. W EST CuNEDINST 

Wl'.'ISLOW H OMER 

ALBERT MAIGNAN 

G. D UBUFE 

Jos i' CusACHS Y CusACHS 

FRANK v. D U,\ IOND 
BRITON R1v11::RE 

EDGARD FARASY, 

G USTA v SURA ND 

G EORGE A GNEW R EID 

M RS. SARAH P. BAI.I. D ODSON 

WILLIAM M ERRITT (HASE 

TYPOGRA VURES 

L andscape 

Pomo na 

At the Water 's Edge 

Rosalie 

April 

Portrait 

Love Dis;1rmed 

Figure in White 

lndi;m Summer in Madison Square 

The Trio 

Sunshine ;md Flow ers 

The Qi,1artette 

The Nantuc k et Schoo l of Philosophy 

Stubbo rn 

T;1mbo uri11e Girl 

Old Sailo1·s 

The Water Colo ri st 

L os t on the G r ;md B;111ks 

The Bi1·th of th e Pear l 

Portraits 

Lan cers o n th e M ;11·ch 

The H o ly F;1mily 

R equi escat 

Emb;1rka ti o n o f Emig rants at Antwerp 

An Annarn Tige r 

The Fo r ec losure o f th e Mo1·tg age 

The M o rning St;irs 

A l i c e- A Portrait 

Vil 

PAG~: 

PORTRAITS OF ARTISTS AND OFFICERS OF THE EXPOSITION 

JOSEPH BAIL 

F. H. T Oil\PKl\S 

EMI LE M UNIER 

( HARLES C. CURRAN 

THOill AS EAKINS 

J. B. BURGESS 
ELIHU V EDDER 

L. APOL 

AY,\ IAR PEZA :-IT 

B . GENZMER 

L1°0N A UGUST!:-/ LHERMITTE 

D E COST Sil\ITH 

M ADAME M ADELEl7\E L EMAIRE 

JEAN A UBERT . 

F. DE VU!LLEFROY 

A LBERT H. M UNSELL 

ALBERT H ENDERSON THAYER 

V ASSILI IVANOVITCH N AVOZOFF 

G. R o cHEGRossE 

PAGE 

97 

99 
101 

103 

103 

105 

107 

107 

109 

109 

Ill 

Ill 

11 3 

l 15 

117 

11 7 

11 9 

11 9 

12I 

W!LJ .l,\M POWELL FRITH . 

Miss L ucy D. H OLME 

T HOl>\AS ALI.EN 

ALBERT A um.ET 

F. w . FREER 
H ARLOW N. HIGINBOTHAM 

R OGER-BAI.LU 

THOMAS H OVENDEN 

R o 1lEln REID 

C07'STA:-ITIN EGOROVITCH MAKOVSKI 

Wll.LI AM T. RICHARDS 

WILLIAM BOUGUEREAU 

L u is J lil\E:-IEZ 

(HARLES YARDLEY T URNER 

H UGH BOLTON JONES 

Wl:-ISLOW HOMER 

G u Y R osE 

L IONEL R OYER 

V ICTOR GILBERT 

PAGE 

121 

123 

123 

125, 177 

127 

Iii 

!xii 

129 

129 

13 1 

133 
135 
135 
137 
139 

143, 150 

145 

147 

147 



VIII PORTRAITS OF ARTISTS AND OFFICERS OF THE EXPOSITION 

I'. J. SINIBALDI 

GEORGE INNESS 

GEORGE WILLOUGHBY MAYNARD 

VACSLAV BROZIK • 

EDWARD LAMSON H ENRY 

F I\EDERICK JAMES . 

W11.1. H. Low 

F. CHILDE HASSAM . 

ROBERT V. V. SEWELL . 

H ERBERT DENMAN . 

ALPHONSE DE NEUVILLE • 

I RVING RAMSEY WILES • 

EDWIN HOWLAND BLASHFIELD . 

I. M. GAUGENGIGL • 

ANGELO DALL '0CA BIANCA 

167. 

PAGE 

149 

15 I 

154 
155 

l 57 
161 

161 

164 

165 

165 

167 

185 

169 

169 

171 

EASTMAN JOHNSON . 

STEPHEN PARRISH 

LOUIS M OELLER 

B. WEST CLINEDINST 

A. BROUILLET 

G. D uBUFE 

EDGARD FARASYN 

L ouis I). DESSAR 

J. L. GI~RO ME 
MRS. SARAH P. BALL DODSON 

GEORGE AGNEW R EID 

L. DOUCET 

WILl.IAM MERI\ITT CHASE 

H UBERT Vos. 

ANGELO DEL Nrno . 

PAGE 

171 

173 

173 
180 

181 

183 

191 

193 
195 
196 ' 

196 

197 
197 

. lxxxi 

lxxxii 

SCULPTURE AND ARCHITECTURE 

PAGE 

The Administration Building and Electric Fountains at 

Night. (In colo1·s) Faci11g xlix 

The California Building xlix 

The Sleep of the Flowers, Horticultural Building 

The East Indian Building 

View to th e Southwest from the Roof of the Liberal 

Arts Building 

M;1ssachusetts Building 

Colorado Building 

Maine Building . 

Washington Building. 

A Group on th e Agricultural Building 

View to the West from the Roof of the Liberal Arts 

I iii 

li v 

liv 

liv 

liv 

Iv 

Building !vi 

View to th e Northwest from the Roof of the Liberal 

Arts Building !vii 

The Battle Ship Illinois !viii 

View to the South from Bridge near the Marine 

Cafe . Facing lix 

The Administration Building from the End of the 

Wooded Island . !ix 

Truth , Administration Building . Ix 

A Group of State Buildings : 1. Illinois. 2. Missouri. 

3. Michigan. 4. Ohio lxi 

Deta il of Group on Agri cultural Building . !xii 

A Corner of the Rotunda, Fine Arts Building !xii 

Figure on Agricultural Building !xiii 

Northern Front and Main Entrance, Fine Arts Building !xiv 

Detail of Capital, Fisheries Building . I 53 

International Rotunda, Fine Arts Building . 

A Group on the Agricu ltural Building 

Interior of the Electricity Building 

Facing lxv 

!xv 

!xvi 

PAG~ 

Swedish Building !xvii 

The Macmonnies Fountain illuminated by a Search 

Light at Night lxv iii 

Abund;mce, Administration Building . lxi x 

Lagoon and Wooded Island at Night. 

Decorating th e Liberal Arts Building, 

Walte1· lvbcEwen 

Porch, Minnesota Building 

La Rabida . 

View in East Court, Fine Arts Building 

The Brakeman, Transportation Building 

View from the Southeast Corner of th e 

Honor 

Texas Building . 

Vermont Building 

Rhode Island Building 

Montana Building 

Group on th e Colonnade 

The Peristyle and Statue of the Republic 

The Court of Honor at Night 

A Familiar Figure 

A Bedouin of the Midway Plaisance 

Watchman , Old Vienna 

Types from the Midway Plaisance 

Japanese House on th e Wooded Island 

Wisconsin Building . 

Virginia Building 

Entrance of Illinois Building 

New Jersey Building . 

Indiana Building 

West Virginia Building 

Nebraska Building 

lxx 

Portrait of 

lxxi 

lxxi 

lxxii 

lxxiii 

lxxiv 

Court of 

. Facing lxxv 

lxxv 

lxxv 

lxxv 

lxxv 

lxxvi 

Ix xvii 

lxxvi ii 

lxxix 

lxxix 

Ix xix 

Ix xx 





] OS EPH BAIL. 

trying to seize it; 

YOUNG SCULLION. 

JOSEPH BAIL. 

(French Sc/100!.) 

This artist, born about 1854, in the Department of the 

Rh6ne in France, is, by reason of his accomplished tech-

nique, one of the masters of still life. He had a great 

success at the Exposition of l 893 in the Champs Elysees, 

and since 1889 he has been hon concoun. His rank in his 

specialty is incontestable. 

A young scullion, with white cap and apron, lying on 

his stomach on a low table in a kitchen, holds a string 

rolled round a spoon, which he tosses at a kitten that is 

but, alert as the agile animal itself~ the lad draws it back 
quickly at the momen-t that the kitten tries to put her paw on it. To the right 

of the table is a copper saucepan with a cover; to the left, another saucepan on 

the ground, and near it some parsnips, turnips, and carrots , out of which soup 

must soon be made. But the youth is too much occupied with the kitten to 

attend to his business. On the wall hang a clock, a confectioner's mold, and other 

objects extremely well drawn. 

M. Bail has a predilection for the brilliant copper utensils of the kitchen, which 

shine like mirrors. He has no equal in the French school for his specialty, which 

has been too much neglected hitherto. 

THE TENTH OF AUGUST. HENRI PAUL MOTTE . (Frenc/1 Sc!ioo!. ) 

The events of the tenth of August of bloody ITJ.emory were the answer of the 

people to the Brunswick manifesto, declaring war upon France. Whi le King Louis 

XVI takes refuge at the National Assembly with Queen Marie Antoinette, the 

mob attacks the Tuileries, defended by the Swiss Guards. From the top of the 

staircase the Guards are firing upon the attacking party, and the ground is already 

strewn with bodies. But the royal Guards, brav~ as they are, can not withstand the 
rush of the mob, and every member of this determined body is destined to butchery. 

The artist to whom we are indebted for this thrilling page from the history 

of the French Revolution was born in Paris, where he became a pupil of Gerome. 

In the earlier part of his career he devoted himself to subjects taken from ancient 

history, like ".The Trojan Horse," 187 5; "Baal devouring Prisoners of War at 

Babylon," 1878; "Geese saving the Capitol," 1881; "The Betrothed of Belus," 

1885; and "Vercingetorix surrendering to C~sar," 1886. He has also chosen scenes 
from the history of his own country, like " Richelieu at La Rochelle," and the dra-

matic subject before us, and of late he has shown a preference for themes like these. 

97 





c' H TOMPVIJ.. 



F. H TO>IPK.INS 

MOTHER AND SLEEPING CHILD. 

F. H. T OJ\IPK fNS. 

(rlmtrim 11 Scl!oo/.) 

Mr. Tompkins was born 111 Hector, N. Y., in 1847, and 

studied art at the Art Students' League in New York, under 

Mr. Walter Shirlaw, and at the Royal Academy in Munich, 

where he was a pupil of Loefftz . In the latter's class he gained 

two first-class medals in the course of two years. His home 

is in Boston. The picture before us is in a sense portraiture, 

for it is evidently a direct and faithful reproduction of two 

figures used as models. But it is di stinguished from the por-

traiture which is content with mere likeness, because the artist 

has gone below the surface and brought forth a sweet and gracious sentiment, 

which transforms his picture into a presentment of a modern Madonna. 

TITE COSSACK'S ANSWER TO Tl lE SULTAN OF TURKEY. ELI AS EFl ~ I OV ITC !f 1'1·: PJ CJ E. (Russian Sc/1001.) 

The painter of this remarkable picture- which, well placed in Gallery 20, was 

a center of interest in the Russian section- was born in the government of Kharkoff, 

in 1844. He was a pupil of the Academy of Fine Arts at St. Petersburg from l 864 

to 187 I. He enjoyed a traveling scholarship from 1872 to 1876, and he also gained 

several medals. He was elected to the Academy in l 876, and he became a pro-

fessor and member of the Council in l 892. His home is in St. Petersburg. 

This artist is the most distinguished of Russian painters of historical genre. 

With others, some twenty-five years ago he put himself at the head of an artistic 

movement the result of which was the national realistic school. His portraits form a 

most admirable gallery of modern celebrities. His last -great historical picture deals 

with the Cossacks of the Dnieper. Their origin is obscure, but they have played an 

important part in the earlier history of Russia, sometimes as friends and fellow-soldiers 

of the Russians, sometimes as free children of the steppes fighting on their own ac-

count against Turks and T'artars. It was in the seventeenth century when the Sultan, 

Mohammed IV;demanded their submission. The C2ssacks, always ready to fight for 

liberty, sent him a blunt and defiant answer. Here they are in the steppes, gathered 

around a table. With a savage smile the chief dictates a reply full of coarse sarcasm 

and scorn: "Let him come! " The other Cossacks add their jests and are convulsed 

with Homeric laughter. The artist conveys a vivid impression of a strange epoch and 

life. It is a rema-rkable study of striking types, characterized by extraordinary vigor 

in the rendering of each. This picture is well known in Europe, where it has been 

frequently reproduced. The artist is equally distinguished as a painter in water 

colors, an etcher, and an illustrator of the great Russian authors like Gogol and Tolstoi. 

99 



0 
:...., 





EMJLE MUNIER. 

THE COLD BATH. 

EMILE MUNIER. 

(Frmr/1 School.) 

The subjects and the manner of this painter represent 

the school of M. Bouguereau. He reproduces episodes of a 

familiar character, and paints with a brush always smooth, 

never troubling himself with the striking effects of the new 

"Plein air" school. He obtained his :first success at the Ex-

position of 1882. In a wood near a clear stream, which, 

below the cascade seen in the distance, spreads out like a 

white cloth, a young woman, with breast and feet bare, is 

seated on a rock, holding on her knees an infant whom she 

has just been putting into the water, and who, enlivened 

by the wholesome freshness of the bath, and proud of having braved the cold, 

smiles at his mother, who looks at him with love. With her right hand she holds 

his feet, and with her left begins to dry his little round body. Near by is a basket 

of provisions, from which she has doubtless taken the fruit that the child holds in 

his hand. The land.scape is in harmony with this simple scene, the execution of 

which is as happy as the subject, and will particularly please mothers. 

GRANDMOTHER AND GRANDCHILD. fV/\N TVOROJEN fKOFF. (Russian S c/tool. ) 

The Russian painter Tvorojenikoff, whose work bas been much in favor during 

the last few years, was born in 1848. His father was a peasant in the province of 

Moscow. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg from l 868 to 

1873, and obtained silver and gold medals. In lS7 5 he was appointed a member 

of the First Class in painting-an official distinction. He lives in Moscow. M. 

Tvorojenikoff has devoted himself chiefly to genre painting, and excels 111 scenes 

of home life among the middle classes and peasantry. He accents these scenes by 

placing them most frequently in autumn or winter. His palette seems to hold 

nothing but gray tones, turning to black ; there are no warm colors upon it. 

Everything is effective and truthful. The grcmdmother and little child, barely 

covered with their rags, shiver in the biting wind, and are wet to the skin. The 

sky is cold and hard, like their life. Is it possible that there can be sunshine 

anywhere, or that spring will ever come? Perhaps for the child, but for the poor 

old woman never ! She is within a few steps of the grave, within reach of the 

rest for which she has been yearning perhaps for years. She is blind. The story 

is told with an immense amount of realism. The painting is quiet, sober, and 

foll of outdoor strength. The figures of the old woman and of the child are 

exceedingly natural, and the handling is easy. 
IOI 



IVAN TVOROJENIKOFF. 

GRANDMOTHER AND GRANDCHTU J. 



F -' 



WINTER MORNING IN A BARNY ARD. 

CHARLES C. CURRAN. 

C ll ARLES C. Cl.: RRAN. 

DR. AGNEW. 

(A mericaJ1. School .) 

Mr. Curran was born m Kentucky, in 

I 8 6 I, and received his first art lessons 

at the Cincinnati School of Design. He 

came to New York in 188r and studied 

at the Academy and Art Students' League. 

He obtained the third Hallgarten pri ze at 

the Academy exhibition of r888, and was 

elected an associate. When he went to 

Paris, in 18 89, he had already made his 

mark here, and he took up a success-

ful career when he returned to New York, 

lI1 189r. 

In Mr. Curran's "Winter Morning m 

a Barnyard" an Ohio farmer is engaged m 

feeding his cows. His daughter is devot-

ing herself to the poultry. The lowering 

winter sky promises more snow. 

THOMAS EA KI NS. (,/ 111erican S c/tool. ) 

In this ghastly but strong and impressive picture of 

the famous Philadelphia surgeon, Dr. D. Hayes Agnew, 

in the operating pit at the Philadelphia Hospital, the 

artist has seized the moment when Dr. Agnew has 

finished an operation. One assistant is putting in the 

sutures, another is taking off the ether-cone. The nurse, 

in her trim hospital dress, stands ready beside the subject. 

The great surgeon, in his operating blouse and apron, is 

talking about the case to a score of students on the 

(\~~ 11 I I . 
I 

THO~! AS EAKINS. 

benches of the little amphitheater. The attentive, inter-

ested faces of the students are equally remarkable. Only one shows by his careless 

attitude how b/we he has become. Prof. Eakins is a Philadel phian by birth. In 

1868, when twenty-four years old, he went to the Paris JJco!e dn Beaux Ar11, 

and studied under Bonnat and Gerome. He also practiced sculpture under Du-

mont. He returned in r873 to establish himself in Philadelphia, where he has 

taken high r;:mk as a painter and a professor at the Philadelphia Academy. 

ro3 







JOHN BURGESS. 

COMING OUT OF CHURCH IN SEVILLE. 

JOHN BURGESS. 

(£11glis!t Scliool . ) 

This genre painter, born in London, m 1830, is the 

son of H. W. Burgess, who was landscape painter to King 

William IV. He is a pupil of M. Leigh, and a member 

of the Royal Academy. He has visited Morocco and Spain, 

which have furnished most of his subjects. 

At the porch of a church in Seville two women are 

about to descend the steps. The younger lifts her gown 

with her right hand, and holds her prayer book in the 

other. Around her arm is a rosary. The elder takes some 

money from her purse and is about to give it to an old 

beggar, who offers his hat to her. Beside the beggar, sitting on the ground, a 

young woman holds in her arms an infant, which she covers with her shawl. 

Another child, on the steps, supports himself on one arm against the knees of his 

mother, and holds an orange in his hand. At the left an aged blind man, on 

his knees, extends his hat, his right hand on his breast, his head thrown back, 

imploring assistance. The spectator seems to hear the nasal tone of the refrain 

of the Spanish beggar, "DiOJ Ie lo pa/e-God will repay you." Two other 

mendicants advance, more resigned than the others, one of them supporting him-

self against the shoulders of a young girl, who stretches out her hand. 

THE NAROVA I~OADS. A. i\ IECHTCHERSK I. (R11ssia11 Sclioo!. ) 

The painter of this picture, Arsseni I vanovitch Mechtcherski, was born in the 

provmce of Tver, in 1831. He entered the Academy of Fine Arts of St . Peters-

burg in 18 54, and from 18 57 to 18 59 he studied under Calame, in Geneva. He 

obtained several medals. In 18 59 he received a fellowship from the Academy and 

continued his studies under Calame, and afterward in the Crimea. He was elected 

to the Academy of Fine Arts in 1864, and became a professor there in 1876. 

Later, he was elected President of the Association of Russian Painters of St. Peters-

burg. In the pictures of this veteran professor the mannerisms- even to the color-

ing and choice of subjects- of his master are seen, although Mechtcherski portrays 

Nature in the wild, mountainous regions of the Caucasus as well as on the coast 

of Finland. A good idea of his style may be seen in this picture of the roads 
at the mouth of the Narova, the river which separates the province of St. Peters-

burg from that of Esthonia. The day is a fine one in summer. Most frequently, 

however, Mechtcherski selects tempests or days of contrasting sunshine and storm. 

105 



I' 

I 

I] 





THE SORROWING SOUL BETWEEN DOUBT AND FAITH. 

ELIHU VEDDER. 

(Amo·ican School.) 

ELI l{U VEDDER. 

Mr. Vedder, like Mr. George Inness and Mr. Winslow 

Homer, has held a place by himself in American art for a 

generation. Here the likeness between the three artists ends. 

Mr. Vedder has been not inaptly called a thinker who paints. 

In other words, his approach to art is not on its sensuous or 

technical side, but on the intellectual and ideal, and his fol-

lowing is distinguished by its earnestness and devotion. His 

pictures represent a nobility of purpose which is wanting in 

the realistic art of the day; and if their significance has an 

esoteric quality which . is sometimes strained, the presence of 

imaginative endeavor is none the less to be appreciated. The picture before us is 

a worthy example of his manner. 

This distinguished artist was born in New York, in l 836. After a brief period 

of art study in this country he went to Italy in 18 56, and for a considerable part 

of his life his home has been in Rome. He was elected to membership in the 

National Academy of Design in 1865. Among the earlier of the pictures which 

gave him a distinctive place in our art were the "Arab listening to the Sphinx," 

the "Lair of the Sea-Serpent," and "The Lost Mind." At Philadelphia, in 

l 876, he was represented by his "Greek Actor's Daughter," and the Paris Ex-

position of 1878 contained his "Cuin-!~,t,.. 
::ti·, __ 

f ,, 

AUTUMN EVENING. 

E. BEER NART. 

(B elgian School.) 

Like the water-color portrait of 

the Empress of Russia, this sympa-

thetic study of Belgian landscape was 

one of the noteworthy pictures in 

the Woman's Building at the Colum-

bian Exposi t ion. A gray day, a bit 

of Bat, low-lying country, drained by 

a sluggish stream bordered with tall 

and slender trees, and a rooftree 

against the sky, are the elements out 

of which the artist has wrought a 

picture that appeals to us like one 

of the favorite themes of the Dutch 

water-color painters. 

114 

PORTRAIT OF THE EMPRESS 
OF RUSSIA. 

MLLE. KRANESKOI. 

(R u ssian School.) 

The Empress of Russia, who was 

Prin cess Dagmar, the daughter of 

Queen Louise of Denmark, was first 

betrothed to the brother of the 

present Czar, who died in I 8 6 5 from 

an injury accidentally received from 

the latter. She has proved a noble 

and devoted wife and mother, like 

her sister the Princess of Wales. The 

excellent likeness secured by Mlle . 

Kraneskoi, a talented painter in water 

colors, shows the family resemblance, 

and invests this reproduction with 

the value of a peculiar truthfulness. 





JEAN AU BERT. 

LOVE'S CAPTIVES. 

JF:AN AUBERT. 

(Frmch School.) 

The Loves, with their bows and arrows, bring back their 

captives. Some follow them weeping; others, glad to be 

pnsoners, play with them, seize them by their wings, and 

surrender themselves smiling. 

The modern French school has revived the eternal subject 

which the painters of the eighteenth century had abused. 

Franc;:ois Boucher had created an entire world where the 

round-cheeked Loves played with mortals, and a whole school 

had lived on this mythology, which, after having inspired the painters and decorators 

of the time of Louis XV, dictated to the poets of the eighteenth century the madri-

gals-the "little verses" which were known as Bouquets to Chloris-and all the 

empty literature against which the Revolution and the Empire afterward protested. 

By the nature of the subjects which he treats, by the interpretations of these 

subjects, and by the style of his f1gures, Jean Aubert belongs to the school of 

Prud'hon, the last of the grand poets of Love, and to three of the best known 

modern artists in genre painting-Hamon, Henri Picou, and Humbert. He re-

veals a fondness for the forms and silhouettes of antiquity, and his Captives seem 

to have escaped from the frescoes of Pompeii. 

M. Aubert was born in Paris, in 1824, and he was a pupil of Paul Delaroche in 

painting, and in engraving of Martinet. He gained the Prix de Rome for engrav-

ing, in I 844, and devoted himself to this art until I 8 53, when he turned to lithog-

raphy, and afterward to painting. He has received third and second class medals. 

SUNDAY MORNING IN NORWAY-THE ARRIVAL AT CHURCH. HANS DA II L. (.Yorwcg ian Sc!t0ol. ) 

This picture appeared in the German section at the Columbian Exposition, and 

as the artist resides at present in Berlin this classifica tion was doubtless intentional; 

but he was born in Norway, and Norway furni shes his favorite themes. He excels 

m rendering the clear, cold atmosphere of his native country. 

The scene is laid in Sogn, at a place called Farlands Fiord, celebrated for its 

great glaciers. It is the third Sunday of the month. They are celebrating the 

mass in the village, and from every quarter the peasants, many of whom live at 

long distances from each other, are arriving at the shore and leaving their boats, 

which they draw up on the beach. Tl1e service is held once a month, and they 

are most reluctant to miss the occasion not only for worship but also for the 

discussion of their affairs. 







LANDSCAPE WITH CATTLE. 

Y DE VU! I.LEFROY 

(Frmc/1 Scl!ool.) 

M. de Vuillefroy does not paint animals exclusively, al-

though most of his pictures show a scene where cattle, sheep, 

or goats play a part. His work is varied, and he has found 

many successful subjects in Spain, and has obtained the favor-

able verdicts of juries by pictures which depict scenes and 

episodes in that country. He has often traveled with smug-

glers and muleteers, and he knows the scenery of the moun-

tains of Andalusia and the somber landscapes of Castile. The 
F. DE VU JLLEFROV. 

sun always plays a part in his pictures; he is a lover of 

light. This time he has remained in the fertile fields of France. A herd of 

catt le are returning to the stable by a broad road lined with old wi llow trees 

with knotted trunks. They advance deliberately, one by one, with heavy steps; 

the sun which pierces the foliage gilds their brown coats here and there, and 

the beautiful ferhs and grasses by the roadside are radiant in the light. In the 

background, at the point where the road turns, the cattle move slowly, and seem 

reluctant to quit the open country for the stable. 

M. Vuillefroy is a pupil of Bonnat, the great portrait painter, and of Hebert. 

He obtained his :first success in 1870, at the Salon. He was made a Chevalier 

of the Legion of Honor m r 884, and at the Universal Expos ition of r 889 the 

jury awarded him a gold medal. 

DA~GE R A ITEAD ! ALBERT II. !\ ! UNSELL. ("lmcncan Sdioo/. ) 

The most impressive feature of this picture, " Danger 

ahead ! " is the sense of irresistible power and swiftness with 

which the great mass of iron and steel, weighing thousands 

of tons, is rushing toward one. A vessel has been dimly seen, 

and one of the watchers raises his trumpet to shout a warning. 

Mr. Munsell was born in Boston, in 1862, and was 

graduated from the Massachusetts Normal Art School. He 

went to .Paris 111 1885, and studied there at the Julien 

Academy and the Ecole def Beaux Arlf, where he took 

honors. He also studied for a time under MM. Boulanger 
ALBERT l!. i\IU~SEl.L 

and Lefebvre. "Danger ahead!" was painted in France, in I 887, and exhibited 

at the Salon of the following year. It was suggested by a narrowly averted col-

lision in the English Channel, and the studies for it were made chiefly at Havre. 

For the last three years Mr. Munsell has made his home in Boston. 



Copyright, 18()3, by 1\uw1n II i\ l uNSE!...:... 

DAN(;F,R AHEAn' 



>. ll T 1J1\Yl' 1, 

,. .//r 



THE VIRGIN ENTHRONED. 

,\. I-I. TI-IA YER. 

(..! mc:rican School.) 

A. fL TH:\VER. 

Mr. Albert H. T'hayer's "The Virgin Enthroned" is foll 

of a sweet mournfulness purely human, and yet of a serene 

majesty that can not fail deeply to impress the observer. 

The pose of the figures of the Virgin and children is con-

ventional, and follows the traditions of the old painters 

who gave their lives to depicting the Virgin and her Child. 

The faces are of the modern type-very lovely, it is true, 

and perhaps the modern type at its apotheosis- but never-

theless faces which represent the life of to-day. 

Albert Henderson Thayer was born in Boston, in l 849, 

and studied there under Henry D. Morse. He came to New York in l 870, and 

worked at the Academy of Design and under L. E. Wilmarth. In 187 5 he went 

to Paris, and painted in the ateliers of Lehman and Gerome. The two summers 

that Mr. Thayer passed in France were largely devoted to outdoor work, and it 

was while sketching in Brittany that he first began to study cattle. At one time 

it was his intention to devote himself to landscape and cattle pieces. He soon 

drifted, however, into his real vocation-the painting of noble figures. In por-

traiture he has also done some fine work. Mr. Thayer was elected to the Society 

of American Artists in 1882. 

A FREE DINING ROOl\1. V. NAVOZOFF. (R11ssia11 School.) 

One of the most brilliant pupils of the Stroganoff School 
of Technical Drawing, and of the Fine Arts School in 

Moscow, in 1874, was Vassili Ivanovitch Navozoff. This 

painter was born in Moscow, in 1862, and was graduated 

from the Academy at St. Petersburg as an artist of the first 

class-an official honor-in 1888. Navozoff is one of the 

most popular among Russian genre painters, and his work 

as an illustrator is highly valued by the publishers. It was 

in this capacity that he accompanied the Grand Duke 

Vladimir through the Baltic provinces in 188 5. One of 
V N.\\'OZOFI'. 

his best pictures is this "Free Dining Room," which was bought by the St. Peters-

burg Academy of Fine Arts in 1889. In its conception as a whole, as well as rn 

detail, we have realism here in the best sense of the word, and a fine play of 

expression in the faces and figures of these pensioners upon this free table and the 

charitable women who have come to help. 

If9 



r---
1 

I 





THE SPOILS OF WAR. 

G. ROCHEGROSSE. 

(Fl·o1c!t .SCl!oot.) 

We have had occasion to speak elsewhere of this artist's 

characteristics. In the present work, entitled "The Spoils 

of War," there is nothing that does not accentuate what has 

been said of his skill and artistic preferences. Here, as so 

often before, he has gone for his subject to the Orient 111 

the early days of history-to the court of Persepolis, or the 

home of Xerxes. 

C. ROCHEC ROSSE. 

The triumphant warrior has chosen for his share of the 

spoils these rich rugs, precious vases, caskets, jewels, and 

golden cups. Two captives, their arms bound, crouch upon 

the Boor of the dismantled palace. The slave who is to share their captivity leans 

against the wall of glazed bricks and mourns their unhappy fate. The helmeted 

warrior, still wearing his coat of mail and carrying his sword, gloats brutally over 

his spoils, and is not to be moved by tears. It is worth while noting that M. 

Rochegrosse remains a conscientious archceologist even in his most fanciful pictures. 

He has painted these vases, armor, tiles, etc., from the treasures 111 the historical 

museums of France, and from the collections made by Dieulafoy 111 Persia. 

RETRIBUTION. W. P. FRITH, R . A. (Eng!is!t Sc/tool.) 

William Powell Frith was born at Studley, near Ripon, 

111 1819. He was a pupil of the Royal Academy, and 

was elected to full membership in 1853. He is also a 

member of the Royal Academies of Vienna, Belgium, 

Sweden, and Antwerp, and in I 878 he received the red 

ribbon of the Legion of Honor. Mr. Frith has been a 

most successful painter of scenes of popular life, and his 

"Derby Day" and "At the Railway Station" are familiar 

through reproductions. The picture before us is the last 

of a series which has a certain likeness to Hogarth's 

\V. P. FRITH, R. A. 

From a photograph by i'.,,l ess rs. ELLIOTT & F l\.Y, 
London. 

"Rake's Progress." The artist painted five pictures to illustrate the evil outcome 

of a heedless race for wealth. In this last scene the fallen financier is seen clothed 

111 a felon's suit, taking his daily exercise in the prison yard under the eye of 

an inspector. The first prisoner passes with hanging head ; then comes the finan-

cier, preserving the rema111s of a certain dignity under his infamous costume; and 

behind him walks a vulgar criminal with brutal face, who casts a look of hatred 

upon the guard. 
I 2 l 







LUCY D. HOLi\IE 

A HOLIDAY OCCUPATION. 

LUCY D. HOLME. 

(/fllh'Fita.n Scl!oo!.) 

The painter of this sympathetic picture of childhood was 

born in Salem County, New Jersey, but the greater part of 

her life has been passed in Philadelphia and its vicinity. 

In I 879 Miss Holme began the study of art at the Penn-

sylvania Academy of Fine Arts, under Mr. William Sartain 

and Mr. Thomas Eakins. After pursuing the usual pre-

liminary studies Miss Holme devoted herself to figure paint-

ing, and in course of time became herself a teacher, taking 

charge of the portrait class at the Philadelphia School of 

Design for Women. A little later she went abroad, and passed two years in Pa-

risian ateliers and in study in various art galleries. At present she is practicing 

her profession in Philadelphia. 

Miss Holme has placed her charming little group against the diffused light 

from a curtained window, which brings out the heads in strong relief. The older 

children are busily engaged with their dainty holiday task, while the youngest is 

an intent observer. The absence of affectation in the artist's treatment, and the 

unconsciousness of her subjects, impart a peculiar interest to her work. 

THROUGH THE WOODS. 

T HOiVIAS ALLEN. 

(American Schoo!.) 

For this fresh and cheerful scene of rural life Mr. 

Allen has doubtless drawn upon his store of outdoor studies 

made in the meadows and upland pastures and the wooded 

roadways of New England. The drove of cows pacing 

unconcernedly along the road are headed by a white leader, 

alert and conscious of responsibility. The size of the 

trees shows that the wood represents a " second growth." 

There are no giants of the primeval forest to be seen, 

but simply a close clustering mass of slender trunks with 
THOl\ lAS ALLEN. 

branches growing low and affording a luxuriant effect in the sunlight, which the 

artist has been prompt to seize upon. 

Mr. Allen was born in St. Louis, in 1849, and studied in Di"1sseldorf and Paris. 

He is a member of the National Academy of Design, and his home is in Boston. 

123 







A LBERT AUHLET. 

JUNE ROSES. 
ALBERT AUBLET. 

(l'i-cuclt Sclioo!. ) 

In a park near Paris a group of young girls are tak-

ing advantage of the first roses to make a raid upon 

the Bowers with as much enthusiasm as if they needed 

bushels to deck the altar for the Feast of the Virgin. 

It is a garden party without men. White skirts glisten 

m the sunshine against a background of green. The 

painter has chosen the black dress of a young girl in the 

foreground as the only somber note in this bouquet of 

spring costumes, in order to bring out more sharply their 

freshness and brightness. More remote, another group 

gathers sweetbrier blossoms, and two of the pretty har-

vesters have already filled a large basket with rose leaves. M. Albert A ublet, a 

Parisian of Parisians, is a young and daring artist who tries his hand at all subjects. 

From the seashore he has been accustomed to send pictures of children rolling in 

the sand. Last year his Salon picture showed that he could treat the nude seriously. 

M. Aublet is thirty-five years old, and a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 

THE DESCENT FROM THE CROSS. JE AN BJ~ RAUD. (Frmcli Sc/100!. ) 

This artist was born at St. Petersburg, of French parents, and studied under 

13onnat. He paints chiefly scenes and types of Parisian life. He belongs to the 

modern realistic school. Through a voluntary anachronism, which recalls the man-

ner of the early painters of the Italian and German schools, Beraud has dressed the 

characters of the grand drama of the Passion in modern costume, and he has placed 

Golgotha on the hill of Montmartre. The Virgin, the holy women, Simon the 

Cyrenian, Joseph of Arimathea-all the actors are there. A fierce-looking work-

man, standing on the hillside, threatens the Pharisaic city which has allowed the 

great crime to be accomplished. 

M. Beraud usually illustrates in his work the close and exact observation of con-

temporary manners and customs which has found so general an expression in the 

literature as well as the art of the last decade. He has not felt it necessary to limit 

himself to the morbid and outre, like some of his brethren, but, ensconcing himself 

in a cab with glass front and sides, he has driven about the streets of Paris, 

stopping wherever subjects presented themselves, and from his improvised studio 

sketching the passers by - ladies, pretty shopgirls, boulevardierJ, or any phases of 

street life which appealed to the artistic instinct. Many of his smaller pictures 

are owned in this country. 

125 



cri 
Cf; 

0 
~ 
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F. IV. r-REER. 

LADY IN BLACK. 

r. W. FREER. 

(A me1ican Scl10ol.) 

The "Lady in Black" is a peculiarly forcible and happy 

presentation of the art of Mr. F. W. Freer, an accomplished 

painter of the figure. He has arranged his admirable sub-

ject with much simplicity and discretion, and the reserve 

of his treatment heightens the effectiveness of the result. 

The stately figure in evening dress is brought out in strong 

relief against a background which is adroitly varied, in order 

to avoid monotony and stiffness. The picture needs no 

explanation, for the beauty of the effect impresses itself at 

once upon the beholder. 

Mr. Freer exhibits this picture in his native city, for he was born in Chicago, 

m 1849. After some tentative work at home he joined the colony of American 

art students at Munich, where Chase, Shirlaw, Duveneck, and others began their 

artistic tutelage. On his return Mr. Freer soon gained recognition by his studies 

of the figure, which were seen at the Academy of Design and the exhibitions of 

the Society of American Artists. Among Mr. Freer's pictures are "Choosing a 

Study," "In Ambush," "Arranging the Bouquet," "Veiled Head," and "Dream 

Life ," As the titles indicate, the artist has devoted himself for the most part to 

genre. He has also painted several portraits. 

A DRENCHING. i\ IADAME DEMONT- BRETON. (Frenr!t Sc/tool.) 

Madame Demont-Breton, the daughter of Jules Breton, the great artist of the 

French school, has added her maiden name to that of her husband, Adrien De-

mont, who is one of the most popular painters of landscape in France. She was 

born at Courrieres (Pas-de-Calais), and was a pupil of her father. She obtained a 

third-class medal in 188 r and a second-class medal 111 I 883. It is interesting to 

recall that Breton's charming autobiography, which is published by D. Appleton 

and Company, is dedicated to the painter of this picture, "for whom alone the 

opening chapters were written .... I have decided to publish the book," the author 

continues, "but it belongs first of all to you, my pride and joy." 

Madame Demont-Breton is a painter of both landscape and genre, and she 

always shows a certain distinction of treatment. 

takes her son into the sea, and the wave which 

health, while the experience develops his courage. 

herself, is educating and strengthening her boy. 

In this picture a young mother 

strikes him gives him vigor and 

The mother, healthy and strong 



MADA.\IE DE.\10:\T-BRET().\I 

A DRENCI-Il NG. 





BREAKING HOME TIES. 

THOMAS HOVENDEN. 

(American Sc/tool.) 

Thomas Hovenden was born in Dunmanway, Ireland, in 

1840. He received his first drawing lessons at the Cork 

School of Design. When he came to this country, in 1863, 

he continued his studies in the night school of the National 

Academy, working for his living during the day. Finally, 

in 1870, he was enabled to go to Paris, where he spent six 
/ 

years at the Ecole def Beaux Arif, and under Cabanel. His 

THOMAS HOV.E.:\IDEN . 
first picture, the subject of which was taken from an 111c1-

dent of the Ven dean wars of 1793, was exhibited at the 

Salon of 1878, and made something of a sensation. He returned to New York in 

1880, and 111 1882 was elected a member of the National Academy. Soon after 

his return he began a senes of historical compositions, followed by studies of negro 

and rural life, which have proved extremely popular. He is a member of the 

Society of American Artists and of the American Water-Color Society and New 

York Etching Club, and has been for several years Professor of Painting in the 

Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. 

This is one of the compositions which tells its own story. The young man, 

already taller than his mother, and dressed in his best, is about to leave home. 

His sister-or possibly his sweetheart-holds in her lap some precious last gift. 

The mother's anxious look shows the distrust she feels for the great world outside. 

The old grandmother sits at the table; while the father is ready with the carpet-

bag, and frets for fear that the stage or the train may be missed. This picture 

1s reproduced by permission of the artist, and of Mr. C. Klackner, publisher. 

THE VISION OF ST. ANGELA. ROBERT REID. (A mer ican S chool.) 

Mr. Robert Reid, the painter of "The Vision of St. 

Angela," is · frank enough to say that his title was an after-

thought, and was suggested by the poem of a friend. The 

little peasant girl, returning home through the fields by 

moonlight, drops her lantern and falls upon her knees as 

the saintly apparition takes nebulous form in her path. The 

child folds her hands in spellbound adoration. 

Mr. Reid was born ir:i. Stockbridge, Massachusetts, 111 

1863, and studied in Boston, New York, and Paris. He is 
ROllEH.T RE ID. 

an instructor at the Art Students' League, and a member of the Society of American 

Artists. He decorated one of the eight domes of the Liberal Arts Building. 



IWBERT REID. 

THE \'ISION OF ST. A~Cf.LA. 





C. MAKOVSKJ. 

THE BRIDE'S ATTIRE. 

C. MAKOVSKI. 

(Russian School.) 

Constantin Egorovitch Makovski, born at Moscow, in 

1 839, is the eldest of four artists- three brothers and one 

sister. One of the brothers, Nicholas, a landscape painter, 

died in i886; another, Vladimir, is one of the best of 

Russian genre painters. Constantin Makovski Is widely 

known by his portraits of fashionable women ; he is also 

a painter of genre. He studied at the Academy of Fine 

Arts in St. Petersburg from 1858 to 186z, and received a 

second-class gold medal; he became an academician in 

1867, and professor m 1869. Of all living Russian painters he IS the best known 

in France and in America. He has studied much in Paris, and is well represented 

at the Imperial Galleries of the Hermitage in St. Petersburg. As a portrait painter, 

Professor Makovski is celebrated for the beauty of the women whom he depicts, as 

well as for his natural rendering of the brilliancy of their gowns and jewels, and 
the choice bibelotJ with which they are fond of surrounding themselves. If he is 
a flatterer, he flatters with tact and good taste. His historical pictures, like " The 

Marriage Fete," "The Death of John the Terrible," and "The Choice of a Wife 

for the Czarevitch Alexis Michaelovitch," are brilliant in color and masterly in pose. 

They compel admiration by their grace and beauty. The subject of "The Bride's 

Attire" is a very simple one. A young woman, surrounded by her mother and 

godmother, her old nurse, and her friends, is preparing for the marnage ceremony, 

while the groomsman outside asks permission to enter in order to present her with 

rich gifts from her future husband. The costumes and the accessones show a 

sumptuous coloring, and the light which the artist has possibly intensified gives us 

the pleasure of seeing a charming group of young girls. 

CRUISING. ]. L. STEWART. (America n Scllool. ) 

The scene Is the deck of the yacht N amouna, owned by Mr. Jam es Gordon 

Bennett, the background is the beautiful Mediterranean, and the time an idyllic day 

in l 890. Nothing more delightful and luxurious than the scene before us is open to 

those who go down unto the sea in ships. With his ready comprehension of the 

types of the fashionable world, Mr. Stewart has preserved a certain air of distinction 

belonging to his subjects, who will be recognized by those familiar with American 

society in Paris. Mr. Stewart was born in Philadelphia, but resides in Paris, where he 

has painted many brilliant scenes of fashionable life, like" The Hunt Ball" and" Five-

o'clock Tea." He has also painted several portraits, including one of Mr. Bennett. 

131 







W. T. RICHARDS. 

FEBRUARY. 

W. T. RICHARDS. 

(American Sc/tool. ) 

The poetic note so common In everything that this well-

known painter has done is conspicuous here. The February 

day is drawing to a close. The sun is not yet below the 

horizon, but it is obscured by banks of light clouds. The 

russet-colored earth is carpeted with millions of dead and 

dying leaves, from which the brilliant colors have faded. 

The air has a chill feeling. The woods are almost bare 

of leaves, and the higher trees show a tracery of naked 

branches. The little pool in the foreground and the country 

road meandering through the clearing suggest a mournful solitude. Where but a 

few months ago all was color and warmth, silence now reigns. The artist shows 

the same poetic feeling which he has expressed in his many paintings of sea and 

shore. The sky alone would tell the time of year, and even the temperature 

of the air. Even without the dominant russet color of the landscape, all this 

may be felt. 

The painter of this picture, William T. Richards, was born m Philadelphia, 

111 1833, and began painting at the age of twenty. In 1855 he went to Europe 

and studied in many cities-Paris, Florence, and Rome among them. In 18 56 he 

settled in Philadelphia, but returned to Europe in 1866, and remained for several 

years. Of late he has made his home in Newport, where most of his admirable 

pictures of surf and waves have been painted. He was elected an honorary mem-

ber of the Academy of Design in 1877, and an associate member of the Water-

Color Society in 1879. 

F. LISZT. T. J. LA YRAUD. (Frencli Sclioo!.) 

This artist, a prizeman of the French Academy and a pensioner of Rome, has 

painted the great pianist and composer of sacred music at the period when Liszt, 

having retired to the convent of Monte-Mario, exalted by religious meditation, 

had manifested a desire to take orders, and already wore the ecclesiastical cos-

tume. Leaning against the piano with folded arms, in a theatrical attitude which 

was habitual with him, Lisz t holds high his noble head covered with long white 

hair. Although he never took orders, Lisz t wore the ecclesiastical dress up to the 

time of his death, without ceasing, however, to go into society. After having 

enjoyed immense prestige throughout the entire world, the artist for the last 

twenty years of his life played only before his intimate friends. 

133 



Copyright, 189-i., by Boussoo, V M .Aoo:-1 & Co. T . J . LAYRAUD. 

F. LISZT. 





THE WOMEN AT THE TOMB. 

WILLIAM BOUGUEREAU. 

(Frenclt School.) 

" And when the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and 

Mary the mother of Jam es, and Salome, had bought sweet 

spices, that they might come and anoint him. 

"And very early in the morning, the first day of the 

week., they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun: 

"And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away 

the stone from the door of the sepulchre ? 

WILLIAM BOUGUEREA U 

"(And when they looked, they saw that the stone was 

rolled away), for it was very great. 

" And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man 

sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted. 

"And he saith unto them, Be not afrrighted: Ye seek. J esus of Nazareth, which 

was crucified : he is risen; he is not here : behold the place where they laid 

him. "-St. Mark, xvi, 1- 6. 

The artist has chosen the moment when the women stand before the tomb in 

their robes of mourning, their faces expressing the bitter sorrow that has fallen upon 

them. In contrast with their downcast air is the angel, who, resplendent in his 

white robe, his hand raised toward heaven, announces the resurrection of the Saviour. 

A VISIT TO THE HOSPITAL. LUIS JIMENEZ. (Spa nislt Scltool.) 

Senor Jimenez was born at Seville, in i 84 5, but left Spain 

after he had gone through a professional course, and lived for 

te'n years in Rome. From that city he went to Paris, where he 

abandoned his first manner of painting, which was that of For-

tuny, Villegas, and Domingo, and became a realist in art- that 

Is to say, a faithful painter of the scenes of contemporary life. 

In this picture the professor is making his morning visit to 

the hospital with his pupils. He stops at the bed of a young 
LU IS JI MENEZ. 

girl who has consumption, and whom he examines carefully by listening through a 

stethoscope to the sounds in her chest . The hospital surgeon supports the patient, 

and the pupils listen attentively to the results of the master's examination. The 

room Is one of those at the great hospital in Paris - L'Hotel-Dieu - and almost 

all the faces are portraits of young medical students. This painting was exhibited 

at the Universal Exposition of 1889, and also at Berlin, Munich, and Madrid, and 

it has brought many awards to the artist, among them that of the ribbon of a 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 

135 







i\ SELi .REi:\ \\'O:IIAN 

Frnm !hr Painting 
L.'sc/1,·n b11 1y 

/n t!ti: 

/Jaro11t'ss J farian1h' 

Sc/Joo!), slww1z 

B uilding. 

SAPPHO. 

AMANDA BREWSTER SEWELL. 

(A m,,rican School.) 

The languorous grace of the Greek girls who sit or lie 

upon the stone bench is transformed into something like 

dreamy ecstasy before the figure of Sappho, who draws 

music from a seven-stringed lyre. The musician seems to 

be carried by the song beyond the scene, lovely though it is. 

The place is the terrace of some palace. The olive groves 

are dark in the distance, while beyond one gets glimpses 

of the summer sea. The maidens who listen enchanted to 

Sappho's song are picturesque enough for the scene. 

Amanda Brewster Sewell was born in the Adirondacks, 

m 1860. Her first attempts at art work were in New 

York. In 1880, through the assistance of Mrs. Candace Wheeler, she was enabled to 

go to Paris, where she studied in Julien's atelier, and under Fleury and Bouguereau. 

Coming back to America in 18 8 5, Mrs. Sewell took a pri ze at the National 

Academy, and received honorable mention at the Paris Salon for several pictures. 

She was one of the medal-winners at the World's Fair. For the last few years 

Mrs. Sewell has lived near Tangiers, in Morocco. 

JOHN ALDEN'S LETTER. c. Y. T URl\ER. (, /111 erica 11 Scliool. ) 

If John Alden was half as attractive as in this pictur-
esque scene, it is not surprising that the Plymouth maid, 

to whom he proposed marriage upon behalf of the sturdy 

Miles Standish, returned to him the historic answer, "Why 

not speak for yourself, John ? " John Alden was not only 

a comely youth, but something of a coxcomb, judging by 

the cut of his clothes, the length of his starched collar and 

cuffs, and the size of the bow upon his square-toed shoes. 
C. Y. T UH.N lm. 

Miles's cottage is a quaint, pleasant place, with deep fireplace, slender andirons 

and crane, and delightful old furniture. 

Charles Yardley Turner was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in November, 18 50. 

After a course at the National Academy and Art Students' League, in New York, 

he went to Paris, where he studied under Lamens, Munkacsy, and Bonnat. His 

home is in New York, and most of his best-known pictures have been exhibited 

at the National Academy. Mr. Turner was elected an associate of the National 

Academy in 1884. 







H. BOLTON JONES. 

SPRING. 

H. BOLTON JONES. 

(A m,·rican School.) 

Hugh Bolton Jones, one of the most conscientious, 

earnest, and truthful of the younger American landscape 

painters, was born in Baltimore, in 1848, and began early 

to devote himself to outdoor art work. After three years' 

lessons in Washington, Mr. Jones sent his first picture 

to the National Academy of Design in 1874, and was 

thereafter a regular exhibitor. He was elected a member 

of the Academy in 1883. In 1876 he went to Europe, 

and had several pictures at the Paris Salon-that shown 

there in 1878 receiving official commendation. In 1884 

Mr. Jones settled m New York. He is noted among the art fraternity for his 

pass10nate devotion to outdoor work, even at times of the year when most men 

prefer the comfort of their studios. He depends upon his sketchbooks only when 

it is impossible to get out into the flelds or the woods. Mr. Jones has been a 

member of the Society of American Artists since 1887, and of the American Water-

Color Society since I 884. 

" Spring" shows an opening m the woods near South Orange, New Jersey. 

It has been raining-the warm rain that bids the buds to open and all Nature to 

awake from her winter sleep. The woods that have been bare so long begin to 

take on a new mystery, and the cottage in the middle ground is already half 

hidden from sight by the young leaves. The sheep's ivy along the edge of the 

woods , and the sedges and skunk cabbage by the swampy pools, are notes of 

spring that are not to be mistaken . Here and there, above the line of the woods 

as they mark the horizon, a tall tree-one of the forest sentinels-rises from 

among its fellows and throws a shadowy mass against the placid sky beyond. 

The atmosphere is that which follows rain . The earth seems saturated, and with 

the end of the day the mist begins to gather; but it is a warm, soft mist, that 

presages Bowers. 

AT THE SEASIDE. i\ I i\ IE. VIH.GINIE DH IONT-DRETON . (fr211c/1 Sclioo!.) 

The two naked urchins who are at play on the beach are trying to push into 

the water the big spaniel, who, though good-natured enough, is not inclined to 

obey. One of the children has sei zed the dog by the throat, and the other pushes 

with all his might; the poor animal, who might show his teeth with older enemies, 

will evidently give way to the children in the end. Mme. Demont-Breton tells 

the story of this little scene in a manner not to be misunderstood. 

139 



t--
< 



.·' 
SunAV< , CoU.l\;Toi5. 



PORTRAIT OF MADAME GAUTREAU. 

GUSTAVE COURTOIS. 

(Frmcl! School. ) 

OPllEl.I A. 

Ilns-Ndic/ by Sarah IJ('rJ/hart!t (l·i·t: 11ch Srl!oo/), shown i 11 th,· 
lt ·oman 's !Juitrling . 

The lady pictured by M. Gustave 

Courtois occupies a place by herself 

m the Parisian world. Madame 

Gautreau is of American ongm. 

Judged by her appearance, by her 

character, and by the particular type 

she represents, Madame Gautreau 

may be said to be one of the " beau-

ties of the Republic." Her constant 

attendance at all the official recep-

tions, and the luxury and singular 

elegance of her costumes, which are 

always rich and incontestably origi-

nal, have attracted the attention of 

the Parisians for the past ten years. 

The painter was born in 1852, 

at Termonde, m the Department of 

Haute-Saone, 111 France. He is a 

pupil of M. Gerome, and has obtained two medals in Paris, and a recompense at 

the Munich Exposition of l 883. He paints history and historical genre, although 

more recently he has devoted himself to portraiture, a sphere in which he excels. 

TJ-1 E DESERTED INN. WORDSWORTH THOi\IPSON. (Amerirn n Sc/tool. ) 

A lowering, bitter winter afternoon, near sunset, makes highly desirable the 

shelter of just such an old-fashioned, homelike mn as the one before which these 

travelers have halted. The snow of the last storm is still heavy in the roads, and 

lies in patches upon the gables and the stone steps, and if the sky may be trusted, 

there will . be more snow in the air before morning. The horsemen are evidently 

strangers in the neighborhood-perhaps fugitives before the enemy-and their horses 

have seen many a weary mile, else they would have known that this fine old 

inn offered no welcome to man or beast. 

Wordsworth Thompson was born in Baltimore, in May, l 840, and studied under 

Gleyre, Lambinet, and Passini, in Paris. After a fruitful trip through Algiers and 

Spain, Mr. Thompson returned to this country and settled in New York, devoting 

himself largely to depicting colonial life. He was elected a member of the Na-

tional Academy of Design in 1874. 





~ 
\ '~ 
j ) 



Wl NSLO\V HU :'l l C:R. 

the .fish are thickest. 

of animated silver. 

THE HERRING NET. 

WINSLOW HOMER. 

(A merican Scliool.) 

The fishing boat, with its two men, stands out sharply, 

and the contrast between the brilliantly colored fish as 

they are tossed into the boat, and the surrounding leaden 

murkiness, is very marked. The men-genuine Yankee 

fishermen-are engaged in what is known as "running" 

the nets. As one man pulls in the long net, his companion 

on the other side of the boat pays it out, carefully watching 

for any breaks in the meshes. They have reached the end 

of the net, near the buoy to which it is fastened, and where 

Apparently it is a fair catch, and the boat ought to be full 

Off in the distance is the schooner to which they belong. 

Winslow Homer was born in Boston, m 1836. In 1857, after four years of 

work as a lithographer's apprentice, he went to New York, where he entered the 

National Academy of Design as a student, and also worked in the studio of Frederic 

Rondel. While studying ten hours a day, Mr. Homer managed to support himself 

by making illustrations. When the war began he supplied illustrations to Harper's 

Weekly. He also sent home from the front some paintings, scenes of camp life. 

His "Prisoners from the Front" struck the keynote of the national excitement 

and made the artist's reputation. The National Academy elected him an associate 

in 1864, and a member the following year. In 1866 he helped to found the 

American Water-Color Society. In 1868 he made a short visit to E urope, but 

found little there to influence his art. In Mr. Homer's pictures there is realism, 

but preferably of a dramatic or picturesque type. 

DEATH OF MIGNON. 
ADRJENNE POTTJ NG . (A ustrian Sc/tool. ) 

Goethe's Mignon retains her 

charm for artists, who, since her 

pathetic story was first told, have 

pictured every phase of her sad 

history. Here we see the final 

scene. It is a typical Mignon 

who is portrayed by the painter, a 

talented representative of Austrian 

art, whose picture was shown in 

the Woman's Building at Chicago. 

143 



THE END OF THE DAY. GUY ROSS. <~l111 erica 11 Scliool. ) 

"The End of the Day" almost tells its own story. lt is an old theme, but the young American artist strikes a note of his own. 

The two peasants, evidently father and daughter, returning home in the twilight through the cleared :f1elds, are fine examples of 

the peasant type-bronzed, hard, unlovely faces, with a touching expression of apathetic hopelessness. The bent form of the man, 

his cradle over his shoulder, contrasts well with the lithe :f1gure of the girl, who still possesses something of the grace of child-

hood- a grace so soon to fade under the weight of toil. The harvest moon, lifting its silver disk above the l1orizon, lights up 

a background of fields, hayricks, and the thatched cottages, toward which the tired reapers are wending their way. The picture 

was painted at Crecy, in 1890, and was at the Paris Salon of 1891. 





GUY ROSE. 

POTATO GATHERERS. 

GUY ROSE. 

(Ame1icmi School. ) 

One of the youngest and, according to the judgment of 

fellow-artists, one of the most promising Americans whose 

work was shown at Chicago is unquestionably Guy Rose, 

whose pictures, "Potato Gatherers" and "The End of the 

Day," attracted much attention . Mr. Rose comes from a 

well-known California fa~ily , and was born in Los Angeles, 
in l 868. After taking his first art lessons in San Francisco, 

he went to Paris in 1888, and studied under Lefebvre and 

Boulanger. He came back in l 893 to paint some portraits, 

but has since returned to Paris. Besides much excellent 

figure work, Mr. Rose excels in still life, to which branch of art he at one time 

proposed to devote himself. 

The women of the fields, whom Breton loves to draw, come honestly by their 

bronzed and furrowed faces. Yet Mr. Guy Rose shows in his " Potato Gatherers " 

a peasant woman who still retains some of the grace of womanhood. Such labor 

1s hard at its best, however, and the bent figure of the older woman, no longer 

able to get down upon her hands and knees, tells the story. The scene is a 

typical French farm garden, probably in Normandy, near Rouen, where the artist 

lived in his summer vacations. These gnarled apple trees furnish the sour apples 

from which the famous Normandy cider is made. On the other side of the stone 

wall is probably the highway; while the distant glimpse of red-roofed cottages 

and hayricks is as effective artistically as it is true to the Norman landscape. 

IN MY GREENHOUSE . E. DEBAT- PONSAN. (Frenc!t School.) 

M. Debat-Ponsan has sought an escape from the conventional by placing his 

sitter amid the flowers and plants of a luxurious greenhouse, as if she had seated 

herself for · a moment to enjoy their fragrance on her return from some social 

function. The artist has been fortunate in his subject, and his accessories impart 

a general pictorial interest which is sought for in vain in some portraits. 

Edouard Bernard Debat-Ponsan-who usually omits his middle name in his pro-

fessional signatures- was born in Toulouse, and studied his profession under Cabanel, 

in Paris. He has devoted himself to genre and portraiture, and in 1872 he won 

the second Grand Prix. In 1874 he gained a second-class medal at the Sa.Ion, and 

in 1881 his pictures earned the red ribbon of the Legion of Honor. 
145 





//'I ( - , '/ r/ 



LOVE AND PSYCHE. 

LIONEL ROYER. 

(l'J·ench Sc/1001.) 

The painter of "Love and Psyche" was born at Chateau-

du-Loir, in the Department of the Sarthe, and studied under 

the direction of Alexander Cabanel. He has distinguished 

himself by a portrait of the Rev. Father Monsabre, the emi-

nent preacher, and he has painted many historical pictures. 

He obtained two awards at the Expositions of the Champs 

Elysees in 1880 and 1884. 

LION EL ROYER. 

As a theme, Psyche has inspired artists from the time of 

Jules Romain, in the Renascence, to Baron Gerard under the 

Empire, and in our time to Paul Baudry, the decorator of 

the foyer of the Opera House in Paris. Eros, or Love, became enamored of the 

beautiful mortal Psyche, to the point of forsaking Olympus and striving to make 

her his bride. The oracle of Apollo condemned the young girl to be exposed 

on a mountain, where she would be the prey of a dragon; but Zephyr, beguiled 

in turn, snatched her away and carried her to a splendid palace. It is there that 

her love came to visit her at night, pledging her never to expose him to the 

light under pain of losing him. But, as we know, the temptation was not re-

sisted and punishment followed. In this picture Psyche is sitting in the palace, 

and Love has come unarmed, without his bow and quiver. 

GOOD FISHING. V. C lLllERT. (Frmclt School. ) 

The painter of this picture was born in Paris, about 1845, 

and he has made for himself an excellent reputation. His 

specialty is scenes in the bazaars and markets, and incidents 

in the lives of fishermen. Here the; fishing has been suc-

cessful; the men have had good luck. The captains of the 

boats are b_argaining with the fish dealers and stewards, while 

the men are unloading the white and red rays, turbots, eels, 

mackerel, and lampreys. The scene has furnished an ad-

mirable opportunity for the painter, who has been fascinated 
V. GILBERT. 

by the fresh coloring, by the movement of the crowd, by these types of the Chan-

nel ports, by all the agitation of a seafaring folk delighted by a successful :fishing 

trip, just as a beneficent rain which promises an abundant harvest brings joy to 

the hearts of the farmers. 

147 







I. ]. SIN!BALDL 

SALAMMBO. 

I. J. SINIBALDI. 

(Frmc!t School.) 

Notwithstanding his Italian name, the artist was 

born in Paris, and has studied with Cabanel, and Alfred 

Stevens, the Belgian painter who has spent his life in 

France. M. Sinibaldi is about thirty years of age. He 

obtained the recompense known as " La Bourse de 

Voyage" at the Exposition of 1888. 

The story of the historical romance Salammbo, a 

work of one of the fathers of contemporary romance-

M. Flaubert-has inspired many of our works of art. 

The daughter of Hamilcar has left her palace in the 

pale moonlight and is invoking Tanit on the grand terrace, from which all Carthage 

appears to view. At her feet lies the city, with its white terraces and black 

cypresses. Some vessels with three banks of oars are at anchor in the port, and 

along the horizon the sea reflects the moon. 

RENT DAY. A LFRI::D KAPPES. (:I 111cri«t11 School. ) 

The old couple, who 

dole out their hard-earned 

silver coins so carefully and 

regretfully, are excellent 

types of a generation fast 

disappearing. 

Alfred Kappes was born 

rn 1850, in New York, 

of German parentage, and 

managed to study art in 

the night . schools of the 

National Academy of De-

sign while making his own 

living in business. Nearly twenty years ago his sympathetic sketches of negro life 

began to attract notice. In 1887 he was awarded the Hallgarten prize at the 

Academy, but was not able to receive it because he had passed the eligible age. 

He is an associate · of the Academy of Design, a member of the Society of 

American Artists, and of the American Water-Color Society. 

149 



,,· 

WINSLOW HOMER. 

THE TWO GUIDES. 

WINSLOW H OlVIER. 

(Amcr£ca.n School.) 

In Mr. Winslow Homer's "The Two Guides" the artist 

has painted one of the veterans of the Adirondacks, whose 

acquaintance he made in the woods. The old man bears 

his years well, even by contrast with the stalwart young 

fellow who will take up the work so admirably done by the 

generation of guides and trappers now fading away. Only 

those who frequent the North Woods know how much of 

the comfort and safety of visitors depend upon the efforts 

and accomplishments of these guides, who must be at once 

servants and hosts, ready to do the hard work of carrying and camp-making by 

day, and to while away the evening hours with tales of the chase and wonderful 

fish stories. Mr. Homer has expressed his love of the woods and the men of the 

woods in a score of good pictures. Judging by the foliage, the shrubs and ferns, 

summer is well over; it may be eari y October, from the color of those clouds 

hanging over the face of the nearest peaks. The crowd of visitors has gone, leaving 

the wilderness at the height of its beauty to the deer and the occasional guide. 

Winslow Homer was born in Boston, in 1836, and, after a few months' study in 

New York, began to draw war scenes for the illustrated papers. During recent years 

he has painted many notable coast and marine pictures. He has a studio in Maine. 

150 





WINTER MORNING, MONTCLAIR, NEW JERSEY. 

GEORGE I :\'NESS. 

GEORGE INNESS. 

(A 111er£can School.) 

In the clearing the dead stumps 

show where the lumberman has passed. 

Patches of snow which refuse to melt in 

this cold gray air add to the melancholy 

of the scene; while in the distance 

trees almost bare stand out against the 

bleak sky. 

George Inness, whose title to the 

first rank among American landscape 

painters is rarely questioned, was born 

in Newburg, New York, in May, 1825, 

and has lived most of his life in New 

Jersey. Almost from boyhood he has 

fought against ill health, which in one 

sense proved to be a blessing in disguise, 

since it drove him from the business of 

engraving to his real vocation, painting. When twenty years old he received one 

month's art instruction in the studio of the New York artist Regis Gignoux, and 

this was all the regular teaching he had. After a trip to Europe, in 1858, he went 

to Boston for a few years, and then settled near Perth Am boy. From l 8 7 l to l 8 7 5 

he was again in Europe, returning to establish a home in Montclair, where most of 

his important work has been done. No American landscape painter has taken 

higher rank abroad than Mr. Inness, whose " American Sunset " was selected as a 

representative work of American art for the Paris Exhibition of l 867. 

SURPRISE IN A VILLAGE. E. BOUTIGNY. (Frenc!t Sc/wot.) 

M. Boutigny holds high rank in the phalanx of military painters who deal 

with the Franco-German War of 1870-'7r. His subject, "Surprise in a Village," 

represents a not infrequent episode of modern war. While the village sleeps and 

the streets are deserted, the advance guard. is surprised. The trumpeter sounds the 

alarm, but a ball from the invisible enemy prostrates him. Other shots are heard, 

and the soldiers conceal themselves as much as possible, one behind a tree, another 

behind a barrel. An officer advances to ascertain the movements of the attacking 

party. At the foot of a tree a second trumpeter, who has taken the place of his 

dead comrade, gives the signal of danger to the troops encamped near by. 





JOAN OF ARC LISTENING TO THE VOICES. 

DETAIL Of CAPITAL, 

f!SHERIES BU ILDING 

D. MAILLART. 

( Fn:nch Sclwo/. ) 

Joan of Arc, the humble peasant of Domremy, was 

near a fire of fagots one evening, when she heard 

which seemed to issue from a cluster of neigh-

trees. She passed her hand over her eyes and fell 

knees, and in a Bood of light there appeared 

to her an angel beautiful as St. George, with a sword 

in his hand, a nimbus around his head, and great 

wings outstretched, who bade her rise and go to the 

help of France invaded by the stranger. Voices of ex-

quisite sweetness mingled with this command. At night she recounted her vision to 

incredulous hearers. The artist has endowed the voices with the bodies of angels. 

Bastien Lepage's famous painting of this subject is in the Metropolitan Museum 

of Art in New York. 

M. Maillart was born 111 r 840, in the Department of L'Oise, France, and 

obtained the Priv: de -Rome 111 1864, which enabled him to spend five years at the 

Villa Medicis. His successes at the Expositions have been many, and for eight 

years he has worn the red ribbon of a Chevalier of the Legion of Hon or. 

The stream, swol-

len by autumnal rains, 

is threatening its low 

banks, and the dank, 

gray landscape and 

falling leaves present a 

scene of melancholy, 

which is relieved only 

by the appearance of 

the hunter and his dog 

beyond the stream. 

This picture, the 

work of a talented am-

ateur, was exhibited in 

the Woman's Building. 

LANDSCAPE. PRINCESS l il !RETI NSK I. (Rlfssialf Sc!ioo!. ) 

153 



G. W . .\l:\Y:'.'J .-\HD 

POMONA. 

G. W. MAYNARD. 

(A mer/can Sr hoof.) 

As befits such a goddess, Mr. Maynard's "Pomona" is a 

nymph in the full Bower of womanhood, with low brow, 

languid eyes, and glorious locks. Not only is the dish she 

carries heaped with fruit, but the background is :hlled with 

rich, ripe clusters. Noticeably happy in the composition is 

the decorative use made of the ribbons which bind Pomona's 

hair and Boat gracefully in the air. 

George Willoughby Maynard was born 111 Washington, 

D. C., in March, 1843. He studied at the Royal Academy 

of Fine Arts in Antwerp, from l 869 to l 873, and in r 878 entered the Ecole deJ 

Beaux A r!J in Paris, and later sent pictures to the Sa!onJ of 1 879 and r 88 l. In 

i882 Mr. Maynard returned to this country and settled in New York. He was 

President of the Salmagundi Club in 1885, and was elected to the National Academy 

in 1888. He has done much decorative work of importance, and his talent lent 

itself happily to the embellishment of some of the Ex position buildings. 

154 





THROWN FROM THE WINDOW AT PRAGUE. 

V ACS LA 1· 13 ROZIK. 

VACSLAV BROZIK. 

(Ausfl·in.11 School.) 

This striking picture, which will be remembered by all 

visitors to the Fine Arts Building, represents the "Historical 

'Fenstersturz '" at Prague, on May 23, 1618. The subject 

is one of the incidents of the outbreak of that long pe-

riod of turbulence and contest known as the Thirty Years' 

War. The immediate cause was religious strife. The Prot-

estants of Bohemia, to whom freedom of worship and certain 

definite privileges had been guaranteed by the Emperor Mat-

thias, found these privileges violated, while their petitions for 

redress were ignored by the emperor's councilors. At last they grew weary of their 

treatment and adopted heroic measures. Entering the palace in a body, headed by 

the Count de Thurn, they seized upon Slavata and Martinitz, the most odious mem-

bers of the council of regency appointed by the crown, and threw them headlong 

from the window of the Hradschin, together with their secretary. Almost miracu-

lously they escaped death. This may be called the opening scene of the long war 

in which Prague played so important a part. 

Vacslav Brozik, one of the most ambitious of the Austrian historical painters of 

the day, was born at Tzemoschna, near Pilsen, Bohemia, in 1852. He was a pupil 

at the Prague Academy, and later he studied under Piloty in Munich, and under 

Munkacsy in Paris. Since 1876 his home has been in Paris, and in I 878 he gained 

a second-class medal. He is a chevalier of the Order of Francis Joseph of Austria, 

officer of the Legion of Honor, member of the Antwerp Academy, and Rector of 

the Academy at Prague. 

AT TI-IE \VATER'S EDGE. ELI ZABETll GARD'.'!ER. ( , /111cr ica11 S c/tool. ) 

In this graceful and carefully studied composition, with its classical correctness 

of contours, we have an admirable example of a talented American follower of 

the Parisian academic school. 

Miss Elizabeth Jane Gardner-whose middle name is always omitted in her pro-

fessional signature-was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, but her artistic life has 

been passed in Paris, first as a pupil of H. Merle, Lefebvre, and Bouguereau, and 

afterward as a painter of the figure and an exhibitor at the Salon-where she has 

received various honors-and at the National Academy of Design. Many of her 

paintings are included in important American collections; and her manner, which 

suggests that of her master Bougucreau, is always characterized by good taste, 

dignity, and academic correctness. 



Copyright, 1894, by\\'. 11. T AILER. 

AT THE WATER'S EDGE. 





THE WEDDING DAY. 

E. L. HENRY. 

(American Srhool. ) 

E. L. HENRY. 

The bride and groom are saymg their last farewells 

to the old Virginia homestead and its inmates. The 

negro coachman, immensely proud of his high office, 

holds in his impatient horses, and awaits with dignity the 

shower of rice that he knows is corrnng. The details 

of this picture were gathered in a Virginia home. The 

wedding dress is a real Virginia wedding gown worn at 

the beginning of the century, and the carriage was painted 

from one that belonged to President Monroe, in which 

Lafayette rode through Baltimore in 1821. 

Edward Lamson Henry was born in Charleston, South Carolina, 111 January, 

l 841, and studied art in New York and Philadelphia. For the last twenty-five 

years he has lived chiefly in New York, devoting himself successfully to genre 

pictures and historical paintings of American colonial life. His most important 

recent picture is a representation of the start of the first railroad train in the State 

of New York, August 9, 1831. He is a member of the Academy of Design. 

ROSALIE. \\IAS!·HNCTO:\ ALLSTON. (.·l 1111·r ica1t Sc!tnol. ) 

Among the few great names to be found in the early annals of American art, 

that of Washington Allston holds a high place. He studied and painted 111 

Rome and London, returning in 1818 

to Boston, where the Boston Athemeum 

preserves the best collection of his 

works. In the same year he was 

elected an associate of the Royal 

Academy. Allston was born in South 

Carolina, in November, 1779, and was 

gradu:lted from Harvard in 1800 . He 

died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 

July, l 843. 

"Rosalie" was exhibited in 1839 

111 Boston, accompanied by a poem by 

the artist. The model is unknown. 

This picture was loaned to the retro-

spective exhibition of American art at 

Chicago by Mr. Nathan Appleton. 

157 



Copyrigh t, 189.1. by J. F. P.urc.: 11c1n 

APRIL. JOSEPH-FELL\ BOUCHOR. (h'mc/1 Sc/tool.) 

In "April," M. Bouchor, a clever delineator of rural and provincial life in France, has painted the season when the buds 

are bursting into blossom and the sap runs strongly with a riotous sense of life It is the moment that the peasant seeks for 

ingrafring one variety of fruit upon another-the mating season, as it were, for the fruit trees as for the birds. Beyond this 

idyllic rural group the tower and the church and roofs of the houses are seen in the valley. 





G. DUBUFE. 

THE ANT. 

G. DUBUFE. 

(Frmd1 Sdwol.) 

Evidently this artist, a prominent genre and portrait 

painter of Paris, the son of the late Edouard Dubufe, pro-

poses to himself the highest end that painting can reach, 

namely, the presentation of a nude figure; but M. Dubufe, 

who is a modern, and under the influences of the new school, 

has certainly had in mind the great French writer, La Fon-

taine, and his fable, The Grasshopper and the Ant. In his 

method of treatment there arc various motives. A Japanese 

influence is clearly marked in the frame and in the sky. 

A fan lying open upon the grass, a smg111g bird, 

blooming roses, and flakes of snow which lightly fall upon the pretty face of La 

Fourmi-here is a contrast which makes one think of the spring, when the grass-

hopper chirps, and also of the winter, when, bereft of all sustenance, it asks alms of 

the ant, its neighbor, begging it to give out of its savings a few grains till the 

coming of the next spring. Those who have read La Fontaine will remember the 

cruel response of the ant. 

PORTRAIT. JOI-IN S. SARGENT. (, Jmerican Sc!iool.) 

Nine out of ten of our younger artists of to-day, if asked to name the repre-

sen tative American portrait painter, would probably answer, John S. Sargent. And 

notwithstanding that Mr. Sargent lives so much abroad as to belong to France qt1ite 

as much as to America, he has remained an American in sympathy. Sargent was 

born in Florence, Italy, in 1856, of American parents. He began bis art work early, 

and studied under various painters, chiefly under Carolus Duran, whom he calls hi s 

master. Most of his time has been spent 111 Paris and Italy, and also of late 

years 111 London. At the Salon of 1879 he obtained an Honorable Mention, and 

in 18 8 1 a second-class medal. Mr. Sargent's work has been chiefly in portrai turc, 

but he has painted some fishing scenes and incidents of country life and many genreJ. 

He has been elected to membership in the Royal Academy, and has received other 

marks of English appreci ation. 

The picture selected for reproduction is a good specimen of Mr. Sargent's more 

important work. The extreme pains bestowed upon the head of the boy is 

noticeable in contrast with the sketchy but highly effective treatment of details and 

background. Foreign critics agree in finding more of the spirit of the great masters 

of portrait painting in Sargent's work than in any other of our American painters. 

1 59 



Copyright, i 894, by A UGUSTr.;s ST. GAUDE~S. JOH1' S. SARCEl' T. 

PORTRAIT. 





AN IMPROMPTU AFFAIR IN THE DAYS OF THE CODE. 

FREDERlCK JA::'llE S. 

t.-lmaicnn S'clwol.) 

FREDERICK JAolES. 

Mr. Frederick James took up painting comparatively 

late in life. During his boyhood in Philadelphia, where 

he was born in 1845, he was always fond of drawing and 

sketching, but, his school days over, he went into dry 

goods instead of into art. In 1870 he was able to begin 

serious art study at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine 

Arts, and was so successful that he managed to get to Paris 

in 1876, where he entered the Ecole deJ Beaux ArtJ, and 

worked under Gerome. Returning to this country in 

1878, Mr. James lived for a while in Philadelphia, but re-

moved to New York in 1886, where he has since remained 

and worked. His long summer -vacations he spends in Can-

ada, bringing back with him many sketches of peasant life. 

In "An Impromptu Affair in the Days of the Code" we have a stirring scene. 

The flushed faces of the guests, the empty decanters, the overturned chairs, tell 

their own story. The uniforms are those of the end of the last century. The 

civilian who has roused the anger of this professional fire-eater is evidently alive 

to the seriousness of the occas10n. The cold gleam of the pistols has sobered and 

s.tilled the crowd of men who but a moment before were noisy enough. The 

impressive moment has come, and one can feel something of its intensity. 

LOVE DISARMED. WILL 1-1. LOW. (~lmerican Sc!ioot.) 

The chaste grace of Mr. Low's "Love Disarmed " 

makes it one of the best things he has done. The 

dainty, sweet-faced nymph who has robbed Cupid 

of his weapon, withholds it more 111 sorrow than in 

anger. Perhaps she has felt its sting. 

Will H. Low was born in Albany, New York, in 

1853. In 1871 he began to draw for the illustrated 

papers of New York. From 1873 to 1877 he studied 

in the atelier of Gerome and the classes of Carolus-

Duran Upon returning to America he became one 

of the founders of the Society of American Artists. 

He was elected an associate of the National Academy 

m 1889, and was recently appointed special designer 

to the Treasury Department at Washington. 

__, 
I 

WILi. 11. LOW. 



Dy pt: rmission of ).Icssrs RADTl-.'.E, LAUCK:'1EH & Co., New York, the owners of the copyrigln. WILL JI. LOW. 

LOVE DISARMED. 



_/ 

I. 

,)'#:!;Ir •;. 



FLOWER SIGHT-SEERS. 

CHI UTATO ANDO. 

(Mod('nt jrrja nl'sc Sd!Ool.) 

JAl ' /\'I I·:SE II OUSE Oi\" Tl!E IVOO il EIJ ISLAND 

peach, and in April by the cherry. 

In unaffected love of Nature and 

purity of artistic feeling we have had 

much to learn fron1 native Japanese art. 

This charming picture, however, repre-

sents a foreign influence. It is painted 

in oils accord ing to our methods, and 

whatever we may think of the aban-

donment of native art, the result in 

this case is very interesting. 

The Flower Festivals, which are so 

peculiarly Japanese, begin in February 

with the blossoming of the plum tree, 

which is fo llowed in March by the 

At the Festival of Cherry Blossoms, which is 

illustrated in this picture, the country is alive with people in holiday attire who 

are gorng to well-known places like Uyeno, which are famou s for their blossoms. 

FlGURE JN \VHITE. F. \\I. BENSON. (American Sr!ll!ol. J 

The " Figure in White, " by Mr. 

Benson, is a particularly sweet and 

quiet sitter, whose face is as modest 

as the manner of the artist. The 

girl who stands by this quaint table 

arrangrng her old-fashioned Bowers 

represents a type which Mr. Benson 

loves to paint. 

Frank Weston Benson, whose home 

is in Boston, was born in Salem, Mas-

sachusetts, in I 862. In 1 88 I he en-

tered the school of the Boston Museum 

of Fine Arts, from which he was 

graduated with honors. In I 884-'8 5 

he studied under Boulanger and Lt-

febvre in Paris. He was elected a 

men1ber of the Society of American 

Artists in 1888. 



INDIAN SUMMER IN MADISON SQUARE. 

F. cm LDE HASSAM. 

F. CHILDE HASSAM. (American School.) 

The scene 

1s the heart 

of New York 

city. The 

graceful h.g-

ure is fairly 

framed in by 

the foliage of 

the trees, even 

though the 

dead leaves 

are beginning to carpet the asphalt 

walks. Back of all rises one of the 

towering hotels that bid fair to destroy 

all the architectural proportion that 

New York might have hoped for. 

Mr. F. Childe Hassam was born in 

Boston, 111 1859. He soon became 

known as a skillful illustrator and 

painter 111 water colors. In 1883 he 

appeared at the Na ti on al Academy of 

Design in New York, and soon after 

went to Europe, and studied for several 

years in Paris under Boulanger and 

Lefebvre, taking rank upon his return 

in the ultra-modern school. A special 

exhibition of his pictures in New York 

was so successful that he established 

himself in that city. He was elected 

to the American Water-Color Society 

m 1889, and was one of the organ-

izers of the Water-Color Club. He 

is also a member of the Society of 

American Artists. In 1889 one of his 

pictures received a bronze medal at 

the Paris Salon. 





ROBERT V. V. SEWELL. 

SEA URCHINS. 

ROBERT V V SEWELL 

(American School.) 

A sunlit, luminous atmosphere fills Mr. Sewell 's picture, 

" Sea Urchins," with extreme brilliancy. The dazzling 

reflections from the white, warm sand upon which these 

naked boys are playing, the line of soft green at the top 

of the sand dunes in the background, and the greenish 

blue of the ocean beyond, ofter a fine series of studies 

in light of which the artist has made the most. The 

urchins, who watch the preparations for a launch in one 

of the pools left by the tide, are graceful with the strength 

of boyhood and the enjoyment of the warm sea air. They 

are as handsome as a lot of young savages, and probably as happy. Their ship is 

a genuine Flying Dutchman, whose blood-red sails present the only strong note of 

color the artist has permitted himself. 

Robert V. V. Sewell is a New-Yorker by birth, and the son of the well-known 

New York lawyer. He began art work at the Academy of Design in 1880, and 

soon became identified with the younger school of American painters. In 1885 he 

went to Europe, studying in Paris under Boulanger, and spending his summers lI1 

outdoor work at Grez and other artistic haunts near Paris. A few years ago he 

married Miss Amanda Brewster, the artist, and since then they have spent much of 

their time in Europe and northern Africa. 

THE TRIO. HERBERT DENMAN. (A merican Scli ool. ) 

In Mr. Denman 's picture, "The Trio," the group of 

musicians stands out against the background, although 

the colors-chiefly reds and browns-are by no means 

brilliant nor in strong contrast. The girl who has the 

'cello proves by her graceful pose that even this uncommon 

instrument for a woman may be handled with at least ease; 

whiie the harp-player makes one wish that there were 

more harps to be seen in our modern drawing-rooms. 

Herbert Denman was born in Brooklyn, in July, 1855. 

He began his studies at the :.\rt Students' League, where 
II ERBERT DE~i\IAN. 

he remained until I 880, when he went to Paris, to work under Carolus Duran for 

nearly five years. Before his return to this country he had exhibited several times 

at the Paris Salon, and "The Trio" received an Honorable Mention at the Salon of 

r 886. Mr. Denman is the Secretary of the Fine Arts Society. 







..\LPl-10:'\'SE DE !\EU\"ILLE. 

THE SPY. 

ALPHONSE DE NEUVJLLE. 

(F rmrh School.) 

The Prussian Uhlans have taken possess10n of a French 

village, and the commanding officer and his staff are break-

fasting al freJCO before a little inn. A villager of Lorraine, 

who has undertaken the task of conveying a message from 

one French commander to another, bas been captured and 

brought before the officers, whom be confronts pale but un-

daunted, while he undergoes a rigorous search. Some stolid 

Uhlans watch the proceedings, and in a distant doorway a 

few pitiful women and children look on, aghast at their 

coun tryman's inevitable fate. As usual, the artis t has sought 

a consolation for defeat in depicting the conquerors as callous, and even brutal. One 

aid-dc-carnp, who leans on the table, and another, a supercilious dandy lazily 

tilted back in his chair, regard the doomed man with jaunty indifference. The 

face of the commanding officer is hard and stern. This admirable picture, which 

is owned by Mr. Collis P. Huntington, was in the loan exhibition. 

Alphonse de Neuville was born at St. Omer (Pas-de-Calais), May 31, 1836, and 

died in Paris, May 20, 1885. At the outset he was a student of law, but after 

three years he turned to art. He was a pupil of Picot, and proved an honor to 

his master. He gained medals in 18 59 and 1861, and after receiving the red ribbon 

of the Legion of Honor, in 1873, he was made an officer of the Legion in 188r. 

Several of his paintings are in French museums, while his "Defense of Le Bom-

get," in the Vanderbilt gallery, and his "Attack at Dawn, " in the Walters gallery, 

and other examples, are well known to American amateurs. 

SUNSHINE AND l'LO\IVERS. IRVING R. W ILES. (/ l111crica 11 S cliool. ) 

Mr. \Viles is an artist by inheritance. He was born 111 

Utica, New York, in 1862, and began his professional studies 

111 the studio of his father, Mr. L. M. Wiles, continuing them 

at the Art Students' League, and in Paris under Lefebvre and 

Carolus Duran. His return to New York was the beginning 

of a successful career, which has included membership in 

nearly all the New York societies of artists, and the winning 

of various prizes. Mr. Wiles is a painter of the figure, and 

his success with feminine types is well indicated in the cbarm-
IR\'I I'G I ~. \\' ! LES. 

mg picture before us, an unconventional outdoor expression of gentle motherhood 

and infantine grace. 

r67 



SUNSHINE AND FLOWERS. 





CHRISTMAS BELLS. 

EDWIN H. BLASHFJELD. 

(American Sc!iool. ) 

Here is a serious imaginative work, and one, too, 

which is characterized by vigor as well as grace and a 

splendid sense of power and movement. The architec-

tural details of the picture-the heavy stone walls, with 

their grotesque gargoyles, the massive wooden beams 

strapped with steel to which the bells are attached-

throw into relief the beautiful figures of the angels. 

EDWlN H. BLASHFIELD. 

Ed win How land Blashfield was born on Christmas 

day, 1848, in New York, and after some training at the 

National Academy of Design he went to Paris, in 1867, 

and became one of the most noted of the American pupils in Bonnat's studio. After 

several years of study abroad Mr. Blashfield returned to America, exhibiting first 

"The Minute Men," and another painting of a Revolutionary theme. The artist's 

fine imagination and rare culture have inclined him to ideal subjects, and his serious 

and noble art is held in honor by the appreciative. Mr. Blashfield was elected a 

member of the National Academy of Design in 1888, and he is also a member of 

the Society of American Artists. In recent years he has devoted a good deal of 

attention to decorative compositions for elaborate interiors, in which he has been 

extremely successful. His admirably conceived decoration or a dome in the Liberal 

Arts Building was a distinguished feature of the art of the Exposition. 

THE QU ARTETTE. I. M. GAUGENGIGL. (A merican School. ) 

It is safe to assume that the scene of Mr. Gaugengigl's 

interesting picture, "The Quartette," is the music room of 

some old-time chateau-presumably in Germany. Music is 

a serious affair to these country gentlemen, who find the 

greatest artistic pleasure of their lives in a Haydn or Mozart 

quartette. The critical amateurs who linger near the door 

evidently appreciate the importance of the moment. Cham-

ber music to-day is a lost art as compared with the time 
I. i\ l. GAUGENG IGL. 

when every gentleman was taught some musical instrument as an accomplishment. 

I. M. Gaugengigl was born in the little town of Passau, in 18 56. He studied 

111 Munich, and came to America in l 879 and settled in Boston. He devotes him-

self chiefly to Old World pictures with marked success, and sends an occasional 

painting back to European exhibitions. 







A:\GELO D.iLL 'OCA RrA); CA. 

THE QUADRILLE. 

ANGELO DALL 'OCA BIANCA. 

(ltalia11 School.) 

Few artists in Italy have ever nsen so rapidly to success 

as Angelo dall 'Oca Bianca. Born at Verona, in i 8 58, he 

studied with the sculptor Pagrassi, and afterward at the Acad-

emy of Fine Arts in Verona. His first work was purchased by 

the Fine Arts Society of Verona. At the National Exhibition 

of Milan in 1881 he showed four important canvases. Later 

pictures found a ready market in Germany, France, and Eng-

land, as well as in Italian museums; and the King and Queen 

of Italy honored him with the commission for four large 

paintings. His "Ave Maria" was purchased by the Brera's 

Museum, and won for its author the Premio Principe Umberto. 

Among the artist's many medals is one awarded at Chicago 

for "The Quadrille." 

The enchanting shore of the Lake of Garcia, covered with a soft carpet of 

grass, is lighted by the pale radiance of a misty autumn day. The quadrille is 

formed after the Sunday vespers, and the groups with rhythmic motion gracefully 

advance toward each other. It is the old dance so popular in the plains of 

Lombardy, and so dear to those young maidens, who still embody the beautiful 

types that suggested to Tie polo and Veronese the ideal features of their Madonnas. 

THE NANTUCKET SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY. EASBrAN JOHNSO!"\. (American S c/tool. ) 

No painter knows the quaint ins and outs of old Nantucket 

better than Eastman Johnson, who has made it his summer 

home for many years. A number of old sea captains of high 

degree are gathered here in their clubroom, to talk over, for 

the thousandth and not the last time, the cruises of forty years 

ago, when Nantucket was a whaling port, and the streets, 

now silent and grass-grown, teemed with life and business. 

Eastman Johnson, one of the most distinguished of Amer-

ican painters, was born in Lowell, Maine, in l 824. Before he 

was twenty years old he earned a reputation by his crayon 
EAST \L-\ N JOHNSOK. 

portraits. He went to Europe in 1849, and studied with Leutze 111 Dl.isseldorf, and 

then spent several years at The Hague. In 1860 he came back to America, and 

was elected to the Academy of Design. He has taken high rank both as a portrait 

painter and for his scenes of rural life. His winter home is in New York city. 

r7r 







WINTER SUNSET AT CAPE COD. 

STEPHEN PARRISH. 

(American. Sclt0ol. ) 

STEPHEN PARRISH. 

Mr. Stephen Parrish, the painter of "Winter Sunset at 

Cape Cod," was born in Philadelphia, in July, 1846, and was 

in business until he was thirty years old. From the time he 

was twenty, however, he had devoted his evenings to the 

study of art, and in 1878 some water-color sketches that be 

exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts were so 

warmly praised that he went to New York the following year 

and entered the night school of the National Academy of 

Design, making a living meanwhile by etching and drawing 

illustrations for newspapers. In 188 5 he visited Europe, and since his return be 

has devoted himself to painting and etching. He is a member of the New York 

Etching Club and of the Society of Painters-Etchers of London, and his work in 

etching quickly gained the appreciation of discriminating amateurs. Mr. Parrish is 

particularly fond of wintry landscapes and evening effects. He has spent much of 

his time 111 Nova Scotia and along the more desolate coasts of Massachusetts and 

Maine. In this " Winter Sunset at Cape Cod " the air is still full of reflected 

sunlight, but the snow, which is deep in the fields and has buried most of the 

fences, shows how hard the winter is along this coast. The half-buried farm-

houses afford a comforting suggestion of the New England cheer that seems to 

grow warmer and brighter the more forbidding Nature becomes. 

STUBBORN. LOU IS MOELLER. (A 111eu ca 11 Sc!wol.) 

Mr. Moeller was born in New York, in 1855, and, 

after a course at the Academy of Design, studied for six 

years 111 Munich under the American painter Duveneck 

and the German Dietz. Upon returning to New York, 

in 1884, he gave up large canvases and historical subjects 

and devoted himself to cabinet pictures. His immediate 

success showed that he bad found his true vocation. 

"Puzzled" won for Mr. Moeller the Hallgarten prize 

of three hundred dollars, and he was elected an associate 

of the Academy of Design. 
LOUIS ~IOELLER. 

In Mr. Moeller's picture, "Stubborn," we have three country gentlemen engaged 

111 a heated argument. From the scattered papers and books it is evidently neither 

politics nor religion, but a disputed · law point, that has brought one of the men 

to his feet with angry gestures. 

r73 



STUBBORN. 





\\"ISCOKS l:-1 BUIJ.D r:\·G. 

AFTER THE STORM. 
T . POPIEL. 

(Polish Sc/100!.) 

Just at the approach of harvest a 

driving storm of wind and rain has 

swept across the Polish plains. The 

gram, almost ready for the sickle, 

which the peasant farmer regarded so 

proudly yesterday, to-day lies prone, 

beaten down into the wet ground. 

As soon as the fury of the storm has 

spent itself, the peasant and his wife, 

sick with apprehension, have come 

forth to reckon up their losses. They 

have paused at the edge of their most 

prorrnsmg field. The husband stands as one benumbed with dull despair. More 

demonstrative, the wife wrings her hands; while their friends in the background 

look on in pitying silence. 

T. Popiel lives and paints m Cracow. This picture, which was one of the 

most prominent in the exhibition of the Society of Polish Artists at Chicago, is an 

admirable example of his rustic genreJ. Like Zmurko, he is a representative of 

the society formed by the Polish arti sts who sent their pictures to Chicago. 

GIRL "WITH TAMBOURINE. GEORGE n. BUTLER. (American School. ) 

Mr. Butler's tambourine girl is the low-browed, dark-eyed beauty commonly 

affected by artists who dip into Spanish subjects, and yet she differs from her com-

pamons in a certain refinement beyond her station. The face is a charming one, 

and the original painting is exceptionally mellow and rich in coloring. 

George B. Butler was born in New York, in 1838. He began artistic work at 

the Academy of Design, devoting most of his attention to animal life. His first 

hard work was done under Thomas Hicks, who taught him the rudiments of portrait 

painting, and it was through his influence that Butler went to Paris in I 860, to 

study under Couture. His studies were interrupted by the breaking out of the war. 

He hurried back to the United States and entered the army, winning quick recog-

nition. In 1863 his right arm was injured so severely as to render it useless, so 

that when he again took up his art the left arm had to do all the work. After 

a year's application he began to paint with all his former vigor. He visited Cali-

fornia in 1874, and then went to Capri, and remained there until he returned to 

establish himself in New York. Mr. Butler is a member of the Na ti on al Academy 

of Design and of the Society of American Artists. 

I 75 



Copyright, 1894, by W. C. BROU:<:ELL. 

GIRL WITH TAMBOURINE. 





MONASTIC LIFE. 
FRANK V. DUMOND. 

(.rfmerica.11 .S'clwol.) 

VIRGINIA BUILDING. 

Mr. Dumond, whose "Holy Family" also ap-

pears in this collection, seems to have found his 

artistic vocation in painting religious pictures of 

an ambitious kind. In "Monastic Life" the artist 

attempts to make one feel the absorption, quiet 

dignity, and unworldliness of cloister life. The 

monks who pass their lives in these walls are as 

unmoved by the outside storms of men as are 

the great stone tables upon which rest the pon-

derous tomes they dream over. The green of these cool groves contrasts refreshingly 

with the patches of sunlight filtering through the branches and with the white garb 

of the monks. The open volumes on the stone slabs and the breviary in the hands 

of the standing monk deal as little with the affairs of this world as the men who 

read and study them in dreamy meditation. This picture represents monks less 

ascetic in appearance than some of the artist's types. 

Frank V. Dumond is from the Pacific coast, and has been for several years 

settled in New York, where he is engaged in painting and teaching. He is a 

pupil of Lefebvre and Boulanger. He has been remarkably successful as a teacher, 

and for the last two years has had a painting class of fifty young men and 

women near Paris, for he spends a part of each year abroad. He is an ill ustrator 

as well as a painter. 

OLD SAILORS. ALBERT AUBLET. (Frmc/1 Scliool.) 

In our description of ''June Roses" we have spoken 

of the talent and the personality of M. Aublet, one of 

the most industrious of the younger French painters. 

The old sailors, who no longer go to sea, and live on 

the memories of their days of activity, never leave the 

harbor; but on the departure and return of the fishing 

fleet one may see them lounging on the quays watch-

ing the movements of the boats, and recog111zrng every 

boat and captain at sight. They are moved by the same 

hopes and fears that influence their successors, and, to 
ALBERT AUBLET 

disguise the enforced inactivity of their old age, they tell of the prowess of their 

youth, the days of storm, and the wonderful catches of fish which they have seen 

and taken part in. 







ILLT:\OI S RUTLDIKG. 

THE FLAGELLANTS. 

CARL MARR. 

The Flagellants 1s the name given to certain 

bodies of fanatic enthusiasts who at different 

times from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centu-

nes made their appearance in Europe, proclaim-

mg the wrath of God against the corruption of 

the times. Also, when prayer proved powerless 

against famine and the plague, they attempted 

by self-inflicted scourgings to atone for the sins 

of mankind. In large and disorderly bands-frequently headed by priests and by 

fanatics dressed as monks, bearing aloft banners and crucifixes, their breasts and 

shoulders bare, and their faces concealed by a hood or mask, each armed with a 

heavy knotted scourge weighted with lead or iron - they marched from town to 

town, chanting hymns of vengeance and woe. 

Mr. Carl Marr, though of German parentage and now a resident in Munich, 

passed his boyhood in Milwaukee, and is one of the most talented of our 

younger artists. 

THE WA TER-COLORIST. 

I 79 



LOST ON THE GRAND BANKS. 
WINSLOW HO:\IER. 

(.A111t·riran Srhoo!.) 

Winslow Homer's " Lost on the Grand Banks" brings home to us one of the 

greatest dangers of the fisherman's life. The trawls used are long and heavy lines 

baited at intervals of a few feet. At every tide these lines, kept in place by float-

mg casks, must be examined and the fish on the hooks taken off. For this purpose 

the men put off from the schooners in dories; but sometimes the fog shuts down 

suddenly, there is no response to their shouts, and they are cut off from their 

fellows to face the prospect of a terrible death. 

B. W. CLIN ED INST. 

THE WATER-COLORIST. B. WEST CLlNEDINST. (American Sc/tool.) 

Mr. Clinedinst shows us an enthusiastic student of a 

charming art. His amateur artist might be a professional, 

from her absorption in her work, and we may be sme that 

the flowers before her will be rendered conscientiously. 

The artist, who was born in Woodstock, Virginia, in r 860, 

and studied in Paris under Cabanel and Bonnat, has had a 

studio in New York since 1885, and has become recognized 

as a talented painter of the figure and a successful illustrator. 





A. BROU ILLET. 

PORTRAIT OF MLLE. DARLA UD. 

A. BROUILLET. 

(F rmch School.) 

The artist is one known in the French school as " a 

youth," a term sometimes applied to a painter already ad-

vanced in years but painting with freedom, without sub-

servience to the principles of the classical school, and taking 

his subjects as he chooses, drawing his inspiration from 

everything that passes before his eyes. M. Brouillet, how-

ever, is really young. He was born about 1858, at Charroux, 

in the Department of Vienne, France. He exhibited for 

the first time in l 8 8 1, and since then has gained one suc-

cess after another. In 1884 he obtained a special recom-

pense called La Baune de Voyage, a sum of money given to an artist in order 

that he may travel where he pleases for the purposes of his art. 

After having painted Nature- the scenes of rustic life-M. Brouillet devoted 

himself to interiors and to portraits, subjects m which his treatment has become 

more and more refined. He has a taste for choice themes, and he paints portraits 

of women-a happy career for an artist when he is successful. His "Portrait of 

Mlle. Darlaud" has made him quite fashionable. The subject is charming, as all 

Paris knows. Mlle. Darlaud has no time to live at home and spin ; she appears 

regularly every evening at the Vaudeville Theater or at the Gymnase Theater, ele-

gantly attired in the fashion of to-morrow. Her toilets are described in the news-

papers. She depends for pleasing upon her beauty. She is one of those Pari sian 

actresses of whom only beauty is asked in return for applause, and who, tired of 

possessing only the reputation of being pretty women, resolve to prove their talent. 

TITE BIRTH OF THE PEARL. ALBERT il l A IGNAN. (Fw1clt School. ) 

The artist, who was born in Beaumont, France, is known by his historical paint-

ings and his masterpiece, "The Death of the Seu] ptor Carpeaux," which gained the 

medal of honor at Paris in 1892, the highest award which the jury can give. 

"The Birth of the Pearl " is an allegorical painting, which gives the arti st 

an opportunity to display the brilliancy of his palette. Love plunges into the 

deep, and in a pearl-oyster shell awakens the slumbering goddess, who one day, 

cast ashore by the waves, will enchant mortals under the name of Venus Astarte. 

Venus resists; a wound is made, and from it Bows the life-Buid which is trans-

formed into pearls. 



>tt' 
~tf 

Copyright, 1894, hr A!...DE1n i\ LHG:-:AN ALBERT ~l r\ I G~A:"!. 

THE BIRTH OF THE PEARL. 





WHO IS BEING FOOLED ? 

JOSE JIME1 E Z Y ARANDA. 

(Spanish School.) 

Under the title "Who is being Fooled?" 

Senor Jose Jimenez y Aranda gives us an mcr-

dent of Spanish life in a Castilian city at the 

close of the last century. 

have happened anywhere. 

The incident might 

A jiancee and her 

NEW JERSE\' HUIT .DING . 

future husband have presented themselves, with 

their witnesses, before the notary and are about 

to sign the marriage con tract. A discarded 

beauty has forced her way in at the critical moment, and, with arms akimbo, deluges 

the bridal pair with abuse and brings the proceedings to an end. The notary's pen 

is paralyzed; the would-be bride answers her rival with spirit, and is apparently 

quite ready also to scratch her face, while the royal cuirassier, or king's guardsman, 

strokes his mustache and remains neutral between the two beauties who lay 

claim to him. In the foreground a servant stirs the embers of the fire. The 

others are dumfounded, and the porter guards the door against the old woman-

probably the mother of the discarded one-who tries to get in and lay her 

gnevance before the notary. 

Senor Jose Jimenez y Aranda, who must not be confounded with the painter, 

Louis Jimenez, one of whose pictures we recently published, belongs to the con-

temporary school which follows the traditions of Don Francisco de Goya, and 

which devotes itself to the reproduction of Spanish scenes of everyday life. 

PORTRAITS. G. DUBUFE. (Frr11cli Scliool. J 

This family group of three persons represents the family 

of the painter. It is a souvenir which M. Dubufe has wished 

to keep in his own home, and it is one of his first portraits. 

The oldest child holds the youngest, and is playing at being 

"mamma." The three together make a charming group of 

light colors against the dark background. M. Dubufe has 

completed his gallery of family portraits by painting his wife 

walking-a picture which will take its place also in the hos-

pitable home, where the artists of Paris are wont to gather 

around the master, who is the treasurer of the National Society of 

an organizer of the Salon of the Champs de Mars. 

G. DUBUFE. 

Fine Arts and 



PORTRAITS. 





I RVI~G R. WILE~. 

THE SONATA. 

IRVING R. WILES. 

(A 111t·riran SC!ioo/.) 

The two girls in evening dress, who devote themselves with 

such grace to music, have apparently come to some bar which 

requires more than ordinary skill. Those who doubt that 

woman can hold a violin without awkwardness need only look 

at this fair violinist to be assured of the contrary. Everything 

here has a certain daintiness about it-figures, dress, color, 

and lights-and reflects Mr. Wiles's well-known love of grace-

ful things. Irving Ramsey Wiles is the son and the pupil of 

the well-known artist, Lemuel M. Wiles. He was born in 

Utica, New York, m I862, and went from his father's studio to the Art Students' 

League, in New York. In 1877 he visited Paris, and studied for two years under 

Jules Lefebvre and Carolus Duran. In l 879 he had some water colors at the 

exhibition of the American Water-Color Society of that year which were so good 

as to attract immediate attention. Since then his career has been one of remark-

able success. At the National Academy Mr. Wiles took the third Hallgarten pri ze 

in 1886, and the Clarke prize in 1889. He is an associate of the National 

Academy, a member of the Pastel Club, of the Society of American Artists, and 

of the American Water-Color Society. At the Paris Exposition of 1889 he received 

an honorable men ti on. Mr. Wiles has a studio in New York. His work as an 

illustrator and teacher is almost as well known as the products of his easel. 

LANCERS ON THE MARCH. JOSE CUSACHS Y CUSACHS. (Spauis!t School.) 

Next to the genre painters, it seems fair to say that the military painters play 

the larger part in modern Spanish art, and the picture before us is an excellent 

illustration of the school. It is one of three paintings of similar subjects which 

the artist-who signs his pictures simply J. Cusachs-exhibited at Chicago. The 
scene is a barren upland in Spain, with cacti growing beside the road and white 

farm buildings in the distance on the left. A regiment in heavy cape overcoats 

and spiked helmets, the pennants drooping from their lances, ride slowly along the 

well-worn road under a somber sky. They are fulfilling some routine duty, per-

haps a change of quarters, and there is none of the excitement of a campaign. 

The long line plods steadily onward; but though the journey may seem dull to the 

soldiers, their helmets and lances form points of light in the landscape, and their 

march has a picturesqueness which is appreciated by the spectator. 

Senor Cusachs lives in Barcelona, and represents the Barcelona school of painters 

of military genre. 

185 

l ' 

~ 
_'I:. S __,~~R0Uc1 

, SI BRAN 
-.;.... --{ 

-~ 





I' I { )t :, {\ ~ r\ 

1 Clll' J' ~lll 



11\DlA:'.\A BUILl)]C\fG. 

FORGING THE ANCHOR. 

STANHOPE ~ FOREE~ 

(E nglish Sc/1001. ) 

Mr. Stanhope A. Forbes, a member of 

the Royal Academy of London, has, since 

the Paris Exposition of 1889, acquired a high 

rank outside of England ; for the British 

section at the Exposition was admirably rep-

resented, and he obtained a gold medal 

from the International Jury. His success was 

fully confirmed at a later Paris Salon by his 

picture "Forging the Anchor." The Fine 

Arts Committee, empowered to buy paint-

ings for the Paris Luxembourg Museum, ex-

pressed the wish to have the picture for the 

museum, but it had already been bought by Mr. G. McCulluch, of Melbourne, and 

the artist could only thank the committee for an honor which thus added greatly 

to the value of the work. 

We see the interior of the foundry, the blacksmiths striking with rhythmic 

precision, their faces lighted up by the reflections of the white-hot iron that emits 

a shower of sparks as it takes shape under the heavy blows. What particularly 

impressed the public and the artists in Mr. Forbes's work was the realistic atmos-

phere of the foundry, its heavy shadows broken by the glare from the fire and the 

daylight creeping in through the narrow window, and the hot, smoky vapor which 

the artist has so well succeeded in suggesting. 

THE ]-JOLY FAMILY. F. V. D U ilI OND. (, /111 ff ic1111 Sc/t ool. ) 

Mr. Dumond's "Holy Family" received a medal at the Paris Salon of 1890, and 

is the most ambitious work to the credit of this young American painter. St. Joseph 

and the Virgin Mary sit at the humble board. The scanty interior is made radiant 

by the shining angel, who stands opposite, ready to administer to the travelers' wants. 

Frank V. Dumond was born in Rochester, New York, in 1865, and began art 

work by drawing illustrations for Harper'I fVeek(y, attending at the same time 

the night classes of the Art Students' League. In 1888 he visited Paris, where 

he studied under Boulanger and Lefebvre, and for a short time under Constant. 

From 1888 until 1892 he worked hard upon large pictures, finishing and sending 

to the Salon the three shown at Chicago last summer: "The Holy Family," "Christ 

and the Fishermen," and "Monastic Life." The first named was painted in 1890, 

at Crecy-en-Borie, a hamlet east of Paris. 







WEST VIRGIN!.\ BUILDING. 

A PARISIENNE. 

:VlADAME F. FLEURY. 

(French School. ) 

Seated before a table loaded with Bow-

ers, her hat on her head, her veil dropped, 

and her hands gloved, as if she was ready 

to go out or was expecting some company 

which had not come, the Partiienne doubt-

less is tired of waiting. She passes the time 

in taking one after another from a bunch 

of daisies a Bower, of which she asks its se-

cret. She pulls out leaf by leaf, murmur-

rng, "He loves me-a little-much-passionately." This she begins over agarn, 

petal by petal, more slowly as she proceeds, fearing the final result. 

Madame Fanny Fleury is herself a Paniienne of Paris, which contains a number 

of women born between the boulevards and the Pantheon who are PartiienneJ only 

by birth. It is difficult to define the word, which contains a whole psychology; 

and if one listens to them, all the women born 111 this region would wish to be 

true PaniienneI-which, alas, is not the case. 

REQUIESCAT. BRITOl\ RIVIERE. (E11g lis!t Sc/tool. ) 

Briton Riviere, one of the most distinguished of the English painters of the 

day, was born in London, August 14, i840. His father, William Riviere, was a 

teacher of drawing at Chiltenham College, and afterward at Oxford, where Briton 

took his degree in 1867. Previous to this, in 18 59, he had shown two early 

paintings at the Royal Academy, but his work attracted comparatively little atten-

tion until he exhibited "The Poacher's Nurse," in I 866. In 1876 he obtained a 

medal at our Centennial Exhibition. In 1878 he was elected an A. R. A., and he 

became a full member of the Royal Academy in 188 I. He has devoted himself 

to the painting of animal life in large part, but, like Landseer, in a sense, he has 

invested animals with human attributes. He has used them neither simply as ma-

terial for a color scheme nor as incidents, but he has approached them in an 

entirely sympathetic attitude, and has emphasized qualities which they share in 

common with humanity. He has also chosen many mythological, religious, his-

torical, and other themes, which have been treated in pictures of marked importance. 

The sentiment of Briton Riviere's pictures is usually so clearly defined that 

explanation seems superfluous. There is nothing to be added to his expression of 

the dumb sorrow of this faithful bloodhound, whose head is raised wistfully toward 

the cold hand of the mail-clad knight-faithful even to the end. 







POULTERERS. 

A. WAI.LANDER. 

(Swetlis/i Sr/ioo!.) 

NEBRA~KA BU 11, l)l.'./l;. 

This admirable example of a wholesome 

realism illustrates the effective use which can be 

made of a delicate medium- pastel. In point 

of force and robustness the picture held its 

own when surrounded by oil paintings at the 

exhibition in the galleries of the Fine Arts So-

ciety in New York, which followed the close 

of the Columbian Exposition. 

Nothing could be more s111cere and straightforward than the artist's delineation 

of his subject. The weather is cold, as one may see by the closely buttoned coat, 

but the half-benumbed fingers move steadily through their task, and th e wife at 

least wears a look of cheerfulness. The husband stares into vacancy. Perhaps the 

grouse beside him and the bird between h~s knees recall younger days, when he, 
too, knew the tingling pleasure of outdoor sport and roused the coverts with his 

gun. It is a simple, homely subject, but one good to look upon-sympathetic, 

and full of human interest. 

M. Wallander resides in Stockholm, but, like Anders L. Zorn, he has rounded 

out his ar t education in Paris, and his promise has been recognized outside of his 

own country. 

ElVrBAJHZATJON OF U\II G RANTS AT J\l\T\\.[RP. E])CAR]) FAl\ASYN. (JJt:\IE. 

Corning Clarke, we see 

THE SERPENT CHARMER. 

J L GEROME. 
(F n 1m:/1 Sc/1ool.) 

This famous artist, a sculptor of talent as well as a great 

painter, has attempted a vast variety of subjects. His first 

marked success, "The Cock Fight," was a theme borrowed 

from the ancients ; upon the other hand, the carnival 

scene-the "Duel between Pierrot and Harlequin," now 

in the gallery of the Due d'Aumale-is essentially an im-

press ive page from the life of to-day. Finally, let us recall 

his pictures of Oriental life, of which the most notable and 

successful depict scenes of the present time. 

In this painting, which was loaned by Mr. Alfred 

the tiled hall of a Persian palace. The old chief, pipe 

in hand, and his curved scimiter hanging at his belt, watches the performance. 

Standing upright and completely naked, the young Arab, a boy of perhaps fifteen 

years of age, allows the boa to wind itself around his body. An aged fakir, crouched 

on the ground, plays upon his flute, and at the music the serpent raises its flat 

head and sends forth hiss after hiss. This picture proved one of the most popular 

of the works in the loan exhibition at Chicago. 

Copyrigh t. tS04, by G .-\. REm 

THE FORECLOSURE OF THE MORTGAGE. 

195 



Copyright, 1894, by SAHAll P. B.\LL Oooso:-.. 

SAH:\JJ P. Il.\LL DODSO~t . 

THE MORNING STARS. SARAH P. BALL DODSON. (A111mca11 Sc!too!.) 

The graceful fancy that inspires Mrs. Dodson's picture, 

"The Morning Stars," has been used by many painters, 

but not often more effectively than by this American artist. 

Each of these Boating nymphs bears aloft her glittering 

star, while the leader waves a torch and beckons onward 

her endless throng of followers. The chief figures of the 

composition form a group of remarkable grace and move-

ment. Mrs. Dodson is an American who studied in the 

West, and has had pictures at several exhibitions in Chicago. 

She is now settled in Brighton, England. 

THI·: FORl ~CLOSURE OF THE MORTGAGE. c. A. H.lcID. (Caua rlia 11 School. ) 

Mr. George Agnew Reid, a talented and progressive painter 

of the figure, whose home is in Toronto, was born in the prov-

ince of Ontario, Canada, in r 860. He studied art in Toronto, 

Philadelphia, and Paris, and s111ce 1888 has sent pictures regu-

larly to the Salon. 

"The Foreclosure of the Mortgage" tells its story vividly. 

The head of the family is disabled by sickness, and at last 

the struggle has ended adversely, and the sheriff's officer has 
C. ·\ . REID. 

appeared with the dreaded announcement which means homelessness and ruin. 

r96 





PORTRAIT OF MADEMOISELLE M. DU M. C. 

L. DOUCET. 

(Frmc/1 School.) 

As M. Doucet has already appeared in this collection 

of pictures, it is not necessary to repeat what has been 

said concerning his tendencies and his successes. He is 

remarkable in the variety of his subjects. One day he 

:)aints with a strong hand a group of old men near a 

hedge illumined by sunshine, ancl under this picture he 

writes "My Relatives," thus giving us a family portrait 

and something peculiarly his own. Another day he 

paints "A Garden Party," with elegant women and ex-
L. DU UCC:T. 

quisite young men. On the morrow he gives us a study 

of nude anatomy. If you believe him attached to one style of subject, he passes 
quickly to another, and excels in all. Pupil of the Villa Medicis, he would 

seem to be called to classic painting; but he is fantastic when he chooses. 

The "Portrait of Mademoiselle M. du M. C ." hides a personality under four 

anonymous letters, but it is impossible that the Japanese robe should not reveal 

the incognito of Mademoiselle M. du M. C., even if the crown and armorial bear-

ings did not make known her name. 

A LICE-A PORTRAIT. WJLL!Al\ l l\I. CHASE. (A 111er ica 11 Sc!iool. ) 

Like everything that Mr. Chase does, this winsome por-

trait, entitled "Alice," is full of artistic vigor. This is one 

of the many score of excellent portraits scattered tl1rough 

the country which have carried Chase's name far and wide, 

and by their technical excellence may be said to raise the 

standard of native portrait painting wherever they go. 

William Merritt Chase, perhaps the best known of the 

younger school of American artists, was born in Franklin, 
ll'ILLI A) I ) I. CHASE 

Indiana, in November, 1849. His first lessons were from an Indianapolis painter 

named Hayes, but his real studies began when he came to the National Academy 

of Design, and worked in New York under J. 0. Eaton. From 1872 to 1878 Mr. 
Chase was at the Academy of Munich, under Wagner and Piloty. On his return 

to New York he began a connection with the Art Students' League, which has 

continued ever smce. As a teacher Mr. Chase's influence has been perhaps wider 

than that of any other American artist of the last few years. Mr. Chase is a 

member of the National Academy al)d of the Water-Color Society, and is Presi-

dent of the Society of American Artists. 



ALlCE-A PORTRAIT. 



THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION 
ILLUSTRATED IN ITS 

HISTORY, ARCHITECTURE, AND ART 





~--

r 

\ 

I 
\ 

I , ~--,~ 
~3· 

------~-

THE CALTFORNIA BUILDING. 

. ..._ 
Adjoining the Transportation Building upon the east 

'~""'j stands the building for Mines and Mining, another 
J J\~ first appearance. It measures three hundred and 
, { ~~ fifty by seven hundred feet, and cost two hundred 
. ' ~ ·\~~" and sixty-five thousand dollars. It is situated 

' at the southern extremity of the western La-

goon, and has for its eastern neighbor the Electricity 

Building, which is its twin in size. Its architecture 

is that of early Italian renaissance. The building 

1s ornamented with sculptured allegorical figures sug-

gestive of the great industry to which the edifice is dedi-

cated. This was the first begun and the first completed 

of the Exposition structures, and it has acquired some dis-

the first ever built in which canti-

used for the supports of tbe roof. 

and separated by tbe North Canal 

Building, is the Electricity Building, 

one which attracts many visitors. The science which it exploits 

x Ll :\ 



1s so comparatively new and unfamiliar that its fascinations are great. The cost 

of the building was four hundred and one thousand dollars. The design is m a 

measure original, and such as to produce the most effective results in illumination. 

Its most prominent feature is the predominance of spires and minarets rising above 

its roof. A magnificent colossal statue of Benjamin Franklin, by ~arl-Rohl Smith, 
stands in front of the entrance to this building. 

The pedestrian has now journeyed entirely around the mam group of Exposi-

tion structures en- circling ·the La-

goon. The last two 

well as the Manu-

have their south 

Plaza and the Ba-

Plaza, one reaches 

form its southern 

devoted to Machin-

ture. The former 

dred and ninety-

dred and forty-two 

of four hundred and 

dred and eighty-

ning nearly the full 

bined structures is 

boiler house eleven 

six feet ; and the 

three structures was · 

three hundred thou-

area of these build-

necting pumpmg T i il: Sl.l::EI' 01,. Tiii:: 1 .. 1.0 \\'i::l{ S. 

buildings named, as 

factures Building, 

fronts on the Grand 

s111. Crossing the 

the buildings which 

boundary - those 

ery and Agricul-

measures four hun-

four by eight hun-

feet, with an annex 

ninety by five hun-

one feet. Run-

length of the com-

a machine shop and 

hundred by fifty-

total cost of these 

about one million 

sand dollars. The 

ings, with the con-

works and machine 
J3 .\ S.REl.1EF, 1:y i.UREDO TAFT, O:\' T ll E l l oRTICU LTU l..:AL 13UJLDING. 

shops, is more than eighteen acres. 

Machinery Hall was constructed with a view to salvage, and it takes the form 

of three railroad train houses side by side, each spanned by its own series of trusses. 

Its architecture toward the Grand Plaza and the Canal is exceedingly ornate, 

following classical models throughout and borrowing the details from the Spanish 

renaissance. On the other sides-those toward the railroads and the stock sheds-

the details are simpler in effect. This building is characterized by some of the richest 

color decorations in the entrances to be found anywhere in the Exposition. The 

power house and annex are both equally simple, but the former includes the enormous 

plant of engines and dynamos, the largest display of electrical power ever made. 

L 



The Agricultural Building, directly south of the Manufactures Building and 

between Machinery Hall and the lake, was erected at a cost of six hundred and 

eighteen thousand dollars. It measures flve hundred by eight hundred feet, and 

its annex is three hundred by flve hundred feet. The design is bold and heroic. 

Mammoth Corinthian pillars dignify the main entrances. On each corner, and at 

the center of the building, pavilions are reared through which entrance is had to 

the interior of the structure. Statuary has been used in great profusion in the 

decoration of this building, both within and without, the flgures being illustrative 

1>,/c: I 

~' 

TIIE EAST T>IDIA N BUlLDl:\(;, 

of the agricultural industry. Each corner pavilion is surmounted by domes, above 

which tower groups of statuary. From the center of the building rises a glass 

dome one hundred and thirty feet high, on which stands the famous statue of 

Diana, by Augustus St. Gaudens. To the southward of the Agricultural Building, 

beyond the colonnade joining Agricultural to Machinery Hall, is a spacious strncture 

devoted to the purposes of a stock pavilion and assembly hall. In the same neigh-

borhood are the oil exhibits, the display of agricultural implements, the sawmill, 

and the stock sheds. 

LI 



Along the lake front, south of the Casino, one flnds a succession of buildings 

of great interest and importance. 

First comes the facsimile of the monastery of La Rabida, where Columbus 

was harbored in distress. It is now devoted to the exhibition of every interest-

rng relic which it has been possible to obtain relating to the life, and deeds of 

the discoverer. 

Next in order is the building devoted to the exhibit. of the Krupp gun works-

an attraction for warlike souls as well as for those who believe that the surest 

guarantee of peace is the construction of terrible implements of war. 

The leather interests of the country combined to raise money, and erected an 

exceedingly creditable building, which is used for the display of their manufac-

tures and processes. 

The Dairy Building follows next in order. 

hundred feet, and cost thirty thousand dollars. 

of the most useful and attractive 

The last in this order is the 

and eight by flve hundred and 

was erected at a cost of one 

building is perhaps the most 

It measures one hundred by two 

It is excellent in design, and one 

exhibits of the whole Exposition. 

Forestry Building, two hundred 

twenty-eight feet in size, which 

hundred thousand dollars. This 

original of all the Exposition 

structures. Its architecture is entirely of the rustic order, 

and is most striking. The buiiding is surrounded by a 

veranda, and a colonnade consisting of a series of -col-

umns composed each of three tree trunks twenty~five feet in 
length. All these are left in l'RE;:,;~,~;:~:\.% :~~~,: ~-~~::'.-~;~~'.'°N their natural state with the 
bark undisturbed. The sides of the building are constructed 

of slabs, and in every way the rustic effect is preserved. No forestry display was 

ever before made equaling this in scope and attractiveness. 

The Administration Building, designed by Richard M. Hunt, which was passed 

without a description, is not itself a building for exhibits , but is devoted entirely 

to the offices of the Exposition Company and to arrangements for public comfort, 

convenience, and safety. It is one of the architectural jewels that has been most 

enthusiastically praised. It measures two hundred and sixty-two feet square, and 

cost four hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars. It is worthy of the command-

rng position which it occupies. The building is in the form of four pavilions at 

the angles of a square, and connected by a great central dome one hundred and 

twenty feet in diameter and two hundred and flfty feet high. Its general design. 

is in the sty le of the French renaissance. Seu! pture is used profuse] y in the deco-

ration of the building. The dome itself, rising in graceful lines, and richly orna-

LII 





MASSACllUSETTS BUILDING. 

galleries. With few exceptions these 

State buildings - these State club 

houses - are highly creditable to the 

Commonwealths which they repre-

sent, and every one of the twoscore 

or more is a constant resort for the 

il!All\E BUILDING. 

of the Fair. California follows second, 

with a structure almost as large. To 

the foreign governments were assigned 

sites nearer the lake shore, where they 

are represented by a range of ornate 

and expens1 ve structures, each of a 

LIV 

mented, has been coated with alu-

mmrnm bronze at a cost of fifty 

thousand dollars. The rott111da un-

der this dome rivals the most cele-

brated ones of like character in 

the world. 

Far to the north end of the Park 

are located those State buildings and 

foreign government buildings which 

form the surroundings of th e art 

COLORADO BU ILD ING. 

people of the State. The most preten-

tious of these is the Illinois State Build-

ing, which in size and cost is entitled 

to rank with the great official buildings 

WASI I l:'\ GTO:--' BUILJJl:--'G. 



character suggestive of the architecture of the country whose official home in 

Chicago it is. The buildings of Great Britain, France, and Germany are the most 

pretentious. The Japanese Temple, which was erected at the north end of the 

Wooded Island, is conceded to be of the greatest interest, however, and represents 

the expenditure of the greatest sum. The Mikado's realm made a total appropri-

ation for the Fair of about six hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and the portion 

of it represented in this temple is a permanent gift, to the city of Chicago. 

A GROUP ON TILE AGRTCULTUJ{AL BUTLDIN0. 

P1111.11' M ARTI N Y, ScULl'T0 1{. 

It would be difficult even to catalogue all the mmor buildings within Jackson 

Park, so varied is their character and so great their number. Some of them, 

however, are of special interest, and will furnish a peculiar feeling of satisfaction 

to those who search with care, intending to miss nothing in the Park. 

The Midway Plaisance, which extends one mile west from the Park between 

Fifty-ninth and Sixtieth Streets, developed before the Fair into a colony of all 

nations. Every continent was represented by some kind of a village or other 

LV 



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·~ 

~ 
~ 

:::; 
/ . ~ 
iS ~ 
~ f "' ~ 
< ~ 

3 ;:; ~ ~ ~ 
::l ] 



attraction of such a character as to be of exceptional interest, but unsuited for 

exhibition within the grounds, and therefore established by private enterprise. All 

these exhibits are, however, official, in that the Exposition receives a percentage of 

their receipts, and that they are under its strict discipline and direction. 

The material used in the construction of the Exposition buildings was iron, 

glass, and what is called "staff." Thirty thousand tons-or two thousand carloads-

V IE\\' TO Tiii·: :\ORTllll'EST FR0 111 T![E ROOF OF TIIE !.!BERA!. .11crs BU ii .Di NG , CO:\Tf:\ U I:\(: T!IE \'[Ell' 

SH 0 \\' "1 1"1 THE l ' Rl·: \'IU US l'I CT U RE. 

Th,· l f'oo1kd f's/a nd nwl .fafanese 7~wpk. //ti_· E nd of lhi· J/orlicu /lum! B uildin,J[, !ht! Iromnn's Hui/ding. tk· Illinois Sta ll' Hui!din.r:. Fis1iaics nnd Sw.,cdish 
B uildinJ:'.r, nr,· St!Cll from /,')! lo n:i;ht in the: order 11n111t:d, whili: lh1· .\ .rr/ional G'0<1c•r111J11'1t / B uilding oc(upi 1·s //ti: )t'r1-ground. 

of the latter material were consumed. Staff was invented in France about 1876, 

and first used in the buildings of the Paris Exposition in 1878. It is corn posed 

chiefly of powdered gypsum, the other constituents being alumina, glycerin, and 

dextrin. These are mixed with water without heat, and cast in molds in any 

desired shape and allowed to harden. The natmal color is wbite, but other colors 

are produced by ordinary painting. To prevent brittleness, the material is cast 

l X ll 



around a coarse cloth or oakum. The casts are shallow, and may be in any form, 

in irnitation of stone, n1oldings, or the 1nost delicate design. Staff is impervious 

to water, and is a permanent building material, although its cost is less than one 

tenth of that of marble or granite. One hundred and twenty carloads of glass, 

or enough to cover twenty-nine acres, were used in the roofs . of the various 

Exposition structures. 

It is well to take into account the total expendjtures of the Fair, and the 

sanitary and other arrangements that had to be carried to completion. · Water 

works for the Exposition buildings and grounds were erected with a total capacity 

of sixty-four million gallons daily. A drainage system and sewerage system, be-

lieved to be perfect, is in operation. The completed electric lighting cost about 

one million five hundred thousand dollars, and is ten times as extensive as was 

employed at the last Paris Exposition. In lighting the grounds and buildings more 

THE BATTLE-SI-III ' ILl.I NO IS. 

D RAW'.'/ HY H ARRY FENN. 

than one hundred and thirty thousand incandescent lamps· are employed, and nearly 

seven thousand arc lamps. The total area under roofs 111 buildings erected by 

the Exposition Company, the United States Government, and the State of Illinois 

is about one hundred and seventy acres, and the total cost of these structures 

about eight million five hundred thousand dollars. This does not include any of 

the private buildings, any of the Midway Plaisance structures, any of the State 

buildings, or those of foreign governments. The area of the galleries adds about 

fifty acres to the total as given. It is probable that the buildings omitted in the 

estimate would add at least thirty acres to the area, and three million five hun-

dred thousand dollars to the cost. 

Including the expenses of organizing and conducting the Exposition, and the 

cost of construction, the official expenditures of the Exposition Company will reach 

eighteen million dollars. The nations of the Old World and the South American 

LVIlT 





countries before the Exposition closes will have expended a grand total of thirteen 

million dollars, while the States of the Union will have spent not less than :hve 

million dollars. This is without any consideration of the outlay of private exhibitors 

in preparing their own displays. Fron1 the outset the scope of the Fair steadily 
increased. 

It would be a pleasure to credit here the worthy work which has been done 

by thousands of organizations and individuals to advance the cause of the Fair; 

but that is impossible. It would be of exceeding interest, were it practicable in the 

TllE AD:lll:\I STIUTfO:\ BU ILDl.\1(;, 1.0 0KIN (; SOUTll l l ET\\"EE:\ TlfE El.ECTRI CTTY A:\D '.111:.11 !\G B U ILDI :\ CS 

F RO :-! TllE E.\/ D 0 1' T il le WOODEil ISLA:\U. 

space at command, to outline the work done by foreign comm1ss10ners who visited 

every land on the globe in the interests of the Exposition, and to detail their 

success. It would seem but simple justice to give the list of the States which 

have erected buildings, and the foreign governments which accepted tbe invitation 

of the President, and built for themselves official headquarters, with the amount 

of expenditure in each instance; but there must be many omissions, and these 

among other things must suffer. Suffice it to say for them that they present their 

worthy claims themselves to the visitors at the Fair. 

The governing bodies of the Fair remain in authority and m penonnd much 

LIX 



as they were at the beginning of the work. The President of the Directory is, 

however, Harlow N. Higinbotham. The immediate authority for the direction of 

affairs has been consolidated into a Council of Administration, consisting of two 

rnembers from the Directory and two from the Commission, to whorri all active 

authority is delegated in the general conduct of affairs. Directa<-General Davis 

remains as the chief officer of the Commission; while D. H. Burnham has received 

added authority, and has been placed in charge of the work of construction, under 

the title of the Director of Works. His staff consists of those in charge of con -

struction, decoration, transportation, engineering, and safeguards against fire, dis-

turbance, and disease. The staff of the Director General, as at first, consists of 

the chiefs of the various exhibit de- partments. During the last year 

work has been active in the 

for Public Comfort, a force 

and all kindred work 

the care of those who 

Before ending, it 

briefly of two organi-

exposition work, and 

tance. One is the 

agers, which is a body 

ordinate with the Na-

Through them all ne-

Exposition by women 

come exhibitors were 

to their unceasing 

President, Mrs. Bertha · "'' 

magnificent display of 

Fair was due. Their 

( 

TRUTH . 

the erection of the w 0- G1 oup Oil Corner Pavilion, Administration Building. 
KARL BITTER, SCULPTOR. 

selection of the exhibi ts 

organization of a Bureau 

of guards and of guides, 

of final preparation for 

come to the Exposition. 

is necessary to speak 

zations influential in 

each of great impor-

Board of Lady Man-

111 a measure co-

tional Commission. 

gotiations with the 

who desired to be-

conducted, and it is 

efforts, led by their 

H. Palmer, that the 

woman's work at the 

management controlled 

man's Building and the 

which fill it. The other 

is the World's Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition, which, under 

the presidency of Charles C. Bonney, arranged and brought to success the plan for 

congresses of eminent men in every branch of thought and education. 

The Fair was made in two years. Its success speaks for itself. The enterprise 

of those directly engaged in its construction, and the hearty co-operation which 

they met from almost all classes in nearly every country, together deserve the credit 

that may belong to the agencies which made the success. 

LX 



A C IZOU I' OF ~TATIC llUlLllll\(:S. 

'· ILUNOIS. 

0 MISSOURI. 

1. MICHIGAN. 

4. OHIO. 



DETAIL OF GROUP ON AGRICULTURAL BUILDING 

A GLANCE AT FRENCH ART, 1800-1893. 
Bv ROGER-BALLU, COMMISSIONER OF FINE ARTS FOR FRANCE. 

W HEN one far from the shores of France has the honor of speaking on French art, in connection 
with a Universal Exposition like that of Chicago; 

when one is about to attempt to present a clear view of 

ROGER-IJALLU, 

French art as it is, 

though only m a few 

lines - or rather be-

cause of the very cur-

soriness of this view-

one had need to col-

lect one's thoughts, to make, as it were, an 

examination of conscience. And one's mind is 

at once set at rest. The century which in a 

few years more will expire is also in a mood 

for self-communing; it may be satisfied with 

what it will have contributed, in France alone, 

to the artistic genius of humanity. From the 

beginning to the end of its career, what a vast 

extent has been traversed ! In the midst of 
new horizons opened up, how many lofty peaks 

have risen ! And what infinite variety in its 
multiple manifestations ! Following an epoch 

LXJl 

A CORNER OF THE ROTUNDA, 
FINE ARTS BUJLDJNG. 



of elegance and affectation, it comes to the world bound in the inflexible rigidity 

of the style of the severe David, which does not prevent it from smiling with 

Prudhon. Gros gives it a taste for the freer style of battle pieces. Gericault, 

who died too young, initiates it into the truth of things. But now arise the two 

dominating personalities of the century-Ingres and Delacroix. The one, who 

sacrifices to Italian Renaissance, as David sacrificed to antiquity, is the high priest 

of faultlessly pure and correct design; the other is the Titan, 
------;;,~,<_ .. ,-- --

the torchbearer, who, with f[~ ---1:-:r;;~ a lavish magnificence of 
coloring, throws upon the ___ o-, _ ~~~-/-. ~). 1 1 •• ,~.-- ':..._' _ canvas scenes of epic power _,., ,,. ~s . ·~ 
full of life and move- ''0· -- - ..,...,_ :__ ' -'~~11 ment. Their influences, of ~·I: ~( 
equal force and beauty, " "~ ;;;/- clashing against each other, 
have been shattered in the collision, and from their 

scattered fragments have " ·i-\ _1 / sprung, as m the time of 

Deucalion, diverse tempera- -'ft _1( ·f rnents formed of elements 
/1tli;! :'-'v'!ce1· 'l 
/~1·s1~71/ "ll;e:i/R: 



HUBERT VOS. 

SOME NOTES ON DUTCH ART 
BY HUBERT VOS, ACTI NG ROYAL COllDllSS IONER OF FINE ARTS FOR HOLLAND 

IT has been oft en sa id that since distances have become a mere myt h, art has been generali zed, and that consequently there are no longer 
d ifferent schools of art in different countri es. I t ake t he l ibe rty to 

think di fferent ly. If R embrandt can be considered a D utch painte r, t hen 

there is a D utch school. lt is a schoo l t hat has adopted his palette as its 

national fl ag, and wisely fo llows his interpretation wit hout the slig htest idea 

o f copying him. There is an English school, very much ali ve; an ] ta li an 

and a S panish, very much dead; a German, becoming rap id ly Dutch; and 

a Scand inav ian, already very Parisian. Above all stands t he Pa ri sian school 

of art. It is mostly F rench, partly in te rnational. I t is t he t rue expression 

o f our rest less fin-de-s/ec!e feel ings. T he D utch school is t he re\'crse. It 

is t he expression of our med itati ve sentiments. T he infl uence of t he 

Parisian school is h ig hly st imulating. It is a powerful tonic, often int ox i-

eating, and it produces the very essence of art. T he influence of the 

D utch school is sobe ring. It produces love, not passion, and in vari ably brings t he art ist back to t he old 

maste rs. There is no " bad " art. Both tendencies are good, and will produce great masterpieces. 

T he Dutch are, perhaps, w it h the J apancsc, the only art istic people who have remained true to their 

g reatest masters, for the reason that their g reatest maste rs expressed so fully the sent iments of their own 

coun t ry. A nd as both J apan and Holland have so well prese rved t heir customs and hab its, so also have 

they prese rved the national charac ter of their art unchanged. T he D utch pa inters, like t he J apancse, have 

a techn ique of t heir own which they have inherited. Both find thei r subjects in t he daily life of their 

busy people. Both find delig ht in telling in a simple but most pictorial way of t he qua int li ttl e corners, 

bri dges, slips, and pastures of which t hey are fond. The J apanese love to pa in t t heir ri ch-colored, long-

tailcd birds; the Du tch delig ht in painting t heir many-colo red cows. 

T he modern D utch school, with Josef Israe ls as its leader, has had a g reat influence on modern art, 

and at J ackson Pa rk there were more Dutch pictures, and pi ctures pain ted by close fo ll owers of the Dutch 

school, scattered about in almost every sect ion, t han were hung in t he Holland Sect ion. Gut the D utch 

Sect ion was " D utch " from beginn ing to encl. En tering the H olland Sect ion, you were in Hollan d and 

nmd1e re else. If t he school of r830 has fr ig htened many an art ist by the d isastrous effects of bitumen, 

t he Dutch have been as true to t heir be lo\·ed grays, browns, and blacks as rel igious people arc to their 

Bible. T he U olb nd Section was t he most complete and t he most representat ive co ll ec t ion of t he modern 

Dutch school ever brought together, and all t he cred it is due to my honorable coll eague, l\J . I-I . l\ilcsdag, 

who spared no energy, no work, or money to complete the coll ection and ma ke it an object-lesson for 

art ists, students, and teachers. be li eve that t he success of the H olland Section is t he crown of a 

peri od of the D utch schoo l which will become histo ri cal, and wi ll , I fea r, soon belong to t he past. T hree 

of the most typ ical p ill ars of that school have lately cl iccl-Bosboom, l\lauve, and Artz. Some of the 

best arc getting ve ry o ld, and t he younge r have reared a d iffere nt temple, w hich may or may not stay, 

and belongs to the fu ture. Holland has no scul p tors, no po rtrait painters, because t he Government does 

not protect art , and the wealthy people of IJ olland have not space, I suppose, to hang any more works 

of art. A portra it painter in Holland can earn, if he is successful , about as much as a shoemaker or a 

ca rpenter here. Certainly it so un ds very poet ical for an art ist to starve, but the Dutchman is, after a ll , a 

practi cal man and a positivist, and it takes him a long while befo re he wi ll change th e methods he has 

seen his fa ther use. I fear that for several centuri es to come Dutch pictu res and water colo rs wi ll be 

made by littl e Mcsclags and litt le I sraels and little M auves, and exported all over t he world lik e Edam 

lx xx i 



cheeses, and they will be man u fact ured like E dam cheeses also. But thi s popularity and that wholesale 

imitation are the best proof of the truly great quality of Dutch art. 

The lessons to learn from the H olland art ex hibit at the \Vorld 's Columbian Exposition are: "Be your-

self," "Paint your surroundings," "Learn to love what you have got." If the Dutch artists had stopped 

in th eir studios instead of planting their easels in t he streets, in ditch es, on the seashore, or in farmers' 

cottages, t here would have been no Dutch school. 

Perhaps some day it will be acknowledged that certai n of the best spec imens of modern Dutch a rt 

might have been painted by some of the best old masters. It is probable that for centuries the quaint 

old towns of Holland will still bear the stamp o f a Rembrandt, or a Hobbema, or a Van clcr }deer, . or a 

Pieter de I loogh. I am absolu te ly convinced that I srael 's "r\.lone in the \\1orld " would hold its own in 

the best selected co ll ection of the g reatest pictures eve r pa in ted. I see the same qualities in certain 

church interiors by Bosboom that I sec in some of Rembrandt's work. M auvc has oli taincd sometimes 

as much atmosphere and depth as [ ever saw in a De Hoogh or a Van der J\feer, while the pathos in 

some of l\lari s's town views is unparall eled; and I dare say that nobody ever painted a stronge r and 

more luminous " Mari ne" than some of l\lesdag's Liest productions. N cuhuys has painted a little /;enre 

picture in the old Dcisseldo rf o r l\lunich styl e, hig hly finish ed, and the respect ive values establ ished with 

the g reatest care; the on ly difference between his picture and theirs is that hi s arc ai't, while theirs arc 

not. Students who compare t he two can sec fo r themselves what art means--somcthing that can not be 

de fin ed. 

THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN ITALIAN ART 
Bv CHEVr\LlER .-\NGELO DEL !\ERO 

OFFICIAL REPRESE'.\ TATIVE AND SPEC I AL E.\"VO\. OF T llF I TAL l :\X ARTIST S TO T HE EXECUTl\'E CO'.\J:\IITTEE 

01" Tll E \VORLu's COl.U:\IB IAN EXPOSITJO~ 
SPEC I A L COi\P.IISSIONER T O ITALY FOR THE DEPART\IEN T OF FIXE ARTS OF THE E.XPOSIT IO:\ ' 

RO\'AL S PECIAL CO::\L\ ll SSIO ~' E R OF F l ~E ARTS FO R ITAL\' 

A:\I Gl:: J.0 DEL NERO. 

V ICE.-PRE.SIDE.:'-/ T OF THE J)J T ERNATIONAL JURY FOR THE Fl:'.'l"E AR T S 

W I-IEN the in constant goddess Fortune, from her magnifi cent tem-ple of gold and alabaster-one of the gems of ancient R omc-
listcncd no more to her fervent \1·orshipers, Victory abandoned 

the Roman leg ions. The fo undation of an empire, ending it s limit with 

the world, gave way, and soon a colossal ru in took its place. 

The ovcrnow of barbarism could destroy by fire and pickaxe superb 

monuments, the emanat ion of a di vine genius ; but this fire, instead of suffo-

cating that genius, purified its spirit - the immortal spirit of the classical 

Italian land, which, apparently buri ed with the sensualism of the pagan 

masterpieces, rev ived under th e pure and vivify ing breath of Christianity. 

The frescoes of Pompeii and Il crculancum, hidden under the lava of Vesu·· 

vius, were resuscitated, and tran sformed into the pious symliol s of primitive 

mural painting. The nudity of the bronze idols was recast in the modest grace of an ideal Madonna. 

The spirit triumphed, and, like a fertil e seed, sprang from the earth in rich blossoming, and the fruit s it 

gave were poesy, sentiment, and beauty, whose perfume crossed the blue waves of the T yrrhenian and 

A driat ic Seas, passed over the snowy tops of the A lps, and again Rome mastered the world , but not 

with the g ladiator's dagger in hand ; thi s time it was a conquest of Jove. And then a score of artists, 

tlic-ir docile brushes g uided by high relig ious feeling, created the charming ingenuousness of the ea rly 

Italian school which influenced F rance and F landers. 

The majestic remains of the pagan templ es, the superb marble e ffigi es o f R oman heroes, the elaborate 

lxxx ii 



chiseled gold ornaments of the Etruscan era, caused the glorious sun of the Renaz"ssance to rise and 

vivify every arti stic germ; and we see Italian arti sts called by foreign sovereig ns to their courts to com-

municate the sublime fire, the natural patrimony of Italy. And that spark gave life and birth to the 

Flemish, Spanish, and French schools, and to the British and the German. 

U nder the immed iate influence of art, civilization gained ground rapi dly, making the people gentle 

and refin ed in taste. In almost everything the need was felt of the touch of Art, and Italy an d Rome 

became the dream of all living artists, the goal of a continuous pilgrimage-perpetual tribut e of respect 

to the acknowledged cradle of art, the Eternal C ity. 

A noble emulat ion was soon born between the different regions of the peninsula. The S icilian, Nea-

politan, Roman, F lorentine, and north Italian schools- this embracing Vencti a, Lombardy, Piedmont, 

and Liguria-flourished and a ffirmed their indiv iduality on typical canvases. But, like the characteristic 

d ialec ts derived from one mother tongue, those diffe rent schools show one point of contact- atmosphere. 

No one could long resist the sublime attractions of an art whose conspicuous qualiti es are T ruth and 

Nature, with rational impression ism and a complete absence of conventionali sm. 

This complex modern Itali an school has di scovered and possesses the secret of the subj ect. Its pro-

ducti ons always interest, speak , appeal, subdue. Even the sketched sing le fi g ures, the landscape of t he 

deserted Campagna, the outline o f the sea, possess something mysterious and vital. 

At that wonderful revelation of the arti stic power of a great people, who have of a sudden take n 

their O\\ln place in art-and a prominent place, the \tVorld's Col umbi an Ex pos ition- cro1Vds of v isitors, 

artists, and amateurs \Vere fascinated by the depth and strength of Roman water co lors, the trans-

parency of the Venet ian hori zons, the poesy of the plains of Lombardy, the grace of the Flo rentine 

maiden , and by the classical beauty and purity of design of the Italian marble and bronzes. 

It is to be regretted that at C hicago the Italian schools were not as broadly illust rated and represented 

by their acknowledged chieftains and meritorious followers as they should have been. Yet with sing u-

lar taste a selection was made of the gems, and th e purest ones chosen to appear in T1IE ART OF T ll E 

WoRLD, and to g ive one by one and as a harmonious whole a comprehensive idea of the individual render-

ing of ar t in Italy. Corelli, A ureli, the lamented Ferraresi, Pennachini, De Tommasi, Tiratelli, Prati, 

Dall 'Oca Bianca, and Joris may be studied here in adm irable examples. 

After a noble labor of centuries Italian A rt is now rest ing on her throne of laurels, lov ing ly and 

proudly \\latching the course pursued by the other g reat schools, whose successes must be traced back to 

her, the universal teacher and the prolific mother of them all. 

IN THE AMERICAN SECTION 
BY THE EDITOR 

H E record o f A merican art at t he Columbian Expos ition can be closed with a con-

gratulatory note which has no ring of boastfulness. There has been the cr iti cism, IVhich 

we have hea rd perhaps too often , that A meri can art is not Ame rican, but a reflection 

of foreig n schools. Yet the election figures of a presidential year are compared with 

those of the previous presidential election, not with those of the year be fo re, and so 

our first standard of comparison must be the art work of A meri cans at t he Centen-

nial Exposition. In 1876 Dlisseldorf was st ill reflected in the paintings of a school 

famili arly classified as "Hudson River " art-a school whose earnestness, sin cerity, and real achievements 

are held too lightly to-day. At C hi cago we found that our art ists had stud ied to good purpose the les-

sons of every art center. So much, then, has been gained-catholi city, breadth of view, an enlargement of 

technical range, an infinite adva nce in craft smanship. The arts of sculpture, architecture, etching, wood-

engraving, illustration, and the vari ous forms of decorative desig n, have shown an equa l gain; and the 

lxxxiii 



same impulse is finding expression in sculpture and municipal art societi es, in the proper decoration of 

publi c buildings, and in the closer scrutiny of the lBsthcti c aspect of public monuments, co ins, medals, or 

book covers. O ur consciousness of thi s advance was confirmed and formulated by the Columbian Exposition. 

T here remains the questi on of in dividuality-of a di stinctive A meri can school, which flutters the hyper-

sensitive like th e search for a distinctive school of A merican li terature or the supreme A meri can novel. 

\Vhen we have one we shall have the o ther. M eantime, in one case as in th e other, there will be spo-

rad ic or local examples of true a rtistic individuality, but a general cosmopol.itanism. Indi viduality , like that 

of the lamented George Inness or vVin slow Homer, must always be as isolated as the art of l\ililk t and 

Delacroix and Corot among the artists of their time in F rance. No one of our own masters has had a 

definit e and long-continued fo llowing . There is no A merican school to represent our arti sts co ll ec tively, 

and if the whole subject of art did not lend itself so readily to vag ue g eneralizations we should hear less 

of thi s demand fo r a " national school." The time for this has not come, and, with the close international 

t ies of the present and future, " nation al schools" must of necessity be less and less sharply defin ed. 

Many of our yo unger artists repeat their Parisian masters; many of them have not learned to look for 

themes at home. These weaknesses were recog nized at C hicago, but only a pessimist could fail to hold 

the balance true and to recognize th e splendid energy, adaptability, and promise of A merican art in days 

which we are told are those o f decadence. 

As compared with most of our associates, we showed a fair ratio of artists of a truly individual talent ; 

and so far as modernness and elasticity of techniq ue were concerned , A merican artists more than held their 

own. Sufficient time has passed to allow the consensus of opinion to formulat e itself, and if I read it 

rig htly, the Scandinav ian and A merican Sections a re remembered as the most brilliant displays of the 

Exposition. If the "grand mann er" was very little in evidence in the A merican Sect ion, it was beca use 

the "grand manner " is universally out of el ate. Modern military painters show us the humanity of the 

individual soldier- not the Goel of \Var. The statesman is depicted at colloquial ease, not erect against 

a marble column and heavy draperies, with one hand on the Const ituti on, the other pointing to the 

zenith. Yet paintings like Mr. Blashfield's "Christmas Bel ls" and l\lr. -;\larr's "Flagell ants," to mention 

no others, pro\'C our potentiali t ies as regards th e most ambitious and serious work, and it is lack of oppor-

tunity ra ther than lack of ability which has dwarfed A meri can historica l art. In portra iture, th oug h we 

may not claim Sargent or \ i\T hi stler as representative A meri cans, the range from Eastman J ohnson among 

the veterans to some of th e :)'Olinger members of the Society of American A rti sts g ives no reason for 

discouragement. In landscape, though we have lost Inness and \Vyant, and Martin paints but littl e, their 

work remains as an exemplar o f individual expression; and Tryon , T rachtmann, Platt , and many others, 

help to sustain the claim that in landscape at least we have ve ry nearly developed an A meri can school. 

The talent of our g-c1we pain ters is suggested by examples in this book. In a word , there is no reason 

to despair of the future, though we may have recognized lack of ini t iat ive adherence to foreig n models, 

an absence of se ri ous endeavor, and purposeless .technique here and there in the Ameri can Section. I t is 

mere justice to hold that the good blood and brains that are going in to American art will produce more 

and more results which, like the work of \ Vin slow H omer, embodies t he realities an d ideals of our own 

A merican life. A G loucester fi sherman should mean more to an A merican painter than a .\' ormancly 

peasant. \i\That we have seen at C hicago is a remarkable talent for ass imil at ion, with occasional imita-

tion, and also certa in examples of undoubted orig inali ty and a very considerable output of work repre-

senting earnest endeavor, great faci lity, and a craftsmanshi p of a ,·ery hig h order. \Vhat 11·e may hope to 

sec is not a sing le comprehensive national school, but an increasing number of schools or gro ups of artists 

who have renoun ced t heir foreign allegiance, and, each in a chosen fi eld, are painting the world in which 

they li ve with the devoted purpose of reali zing an independent mode o f express ion. \ i\T arncr and St. 

Gauclens arc not our only sculptors of distinction to-clay, nor are t he pain ters cited for illustrat ion t he 

only arti sts who have th e future of our art in their keeping. The familiar pl aint of inarti sti c atmosphere 

and an undiscerning people can not overcast the future which could be read in the A merican Sect ion at 

Chi cago. 

b: xx iv TH E E:\D . 

-~ 
' .o'. -1// 

S~ANC\-\ 
rp.'!) 

\. 



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